Chapter 1 - Anatomy
Structure of the body
Chemical Properties of the Body
Physical Properties of the Body
Vital Properties of the Body
The Human Skeleton - Diagram
Anatomy of the Bones
Bones of the Head
Bones of the Trunk
Bones of the Upper Extremities
Bones of the Lower Extremities
The joints
Uses of the Bones
The Muscles
The Muscles - Front Diagram
The Muscles - Back Diagram
The Teeth
Uses of the Teeth
Digestive Organs
Urinary System
Respiratory Organs
Organs of Circulation
Absorbent Vessels
Organs of Secretion
Vocal Organs
The Skin
The Nervous System
Organs of Sight
Organs of Hearing

1.11 Bones of the Lower Extremities


These are the thigh-bone (femur), the knee-pan (patella), the shin-bone (tibia), the small bone of the leg (fibula), the bones of the instep (tarsal bones), the bones of the middle of the foot (metatarsal bones), and the bones of the toes (phalanges).

The thigh-bone is the longest bone in the system. Its head, which is large and round, fits admirably into the cavity in the innominatum, called acetabulum, and forms what is called a ball-and-socket joint. In Fig. 12: 1, is the shaft of the thighbone (femur) ; 2, is a projection called the trochanter minor, to which some strong muscles are attached; 3, is the head of the femur, which fits into the acetabulum; 5, is the external projection of the femur, called the external condyle; 6, the internal condyle; 7, the surface which articulates with the tibia, and on which the patella slides.

The knee-pan or knee-cap (patella) is placed on the front of the knee, and being attached to the tendon of the extensor muscles above, and to the tibia by a strong ligament below, it acts as a pulley in lifting up the leg.

The shin-bone (tibia) is the largest of the two in the lower leg, and is considerably enlarged at each end.

The small bone of the leg (fibula) lies on the outside, and is bound to the larger bone at both ends. Fig. 13 shows the two bones of the leg: 1, being the tibia; 5, the fibula; 8, the space between the two; 6, the junction of the tibia and fibula at the upper extremity; 3, the internal ankle; 4, the lower end of the tibia that unites with one of the tarsal bones to form the anklejoint; 7, the upper end of the tibia, which unites with the femur.

The instep (tarsus) has seven bones, which, like those of the wrist, are so firmly bound together as to allow but a limited motion.

The metatarsal bones, corresponding with the palm of the hand, are five in number, and unite at one end with the tarsal bones, and at the other with the first range of the toe-bones.

The tarsal and metatarsal bones are put together in the form of an arch, the spring of which, when the weight of the body descends upon it in walking, prevents injury to the organs above. (Fig. 14.)

The phalanges have fourteen bones. The great toe has two ranges

of bones; the other toes have three. Fig. 15 gives a view of the upper surface of the bones of the foot: 1, is the surface of the astragalus where it unites with the tibia; 2, the body of the astragalus; 3, the heelbone (os calcis); 4, the scaphoid bone ; 5, 6, 7, the cuneiform bones; 8, the cuboid; 9, 9, 9, the metatarsal bones; 10, the first bone of the great toe ; 11, the second bone; 12, 13, 14, three ranges of bones forming the small toes.

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