Chapter 1 - Anatomy
Structure of the body
Chemical Properties of the Body
Physical Properties of the Body
Vital Properties of the Body
The Human Skeleton - Diagram
Anatomy of the Bones
Bones of the Head
Bones of the Trunk
Bones of the Upper Extremities
Bones of the Lower Extremities
The joints
Uses of the Bones
The Muscles
The Muscles - Front Diagram
The Muscles - Back Diagram
The Teeth
Uses of the Teeth
Digestive Organs
Urinary System
Respiratory Organs
Organs of Circulation
Absorbent Vessels
Organs of Secretion
Vocal Organs
The Skin
The Nervous System
Organs of Sight
Organs of Hearing

1.26 The Skin

The Skin. THE skin is a membrane composed of two layers, covering the entire person. The outer layer is the scarfskin or cuticle ; the inner is the true skin or cutis or corium. These layers differ in their structure and uses.

The Scarf Skin, called also cuticle and epidermis, is a thin membrane, partially transparent, like a thin shaving of horn. Having no bloodvessels or nerves, and consequently no feeling, it appears to be a simple covering to protect the true skin from injury by external agents. It is thickest on those parts most exposed to friction. The scarfskin is the production of the true skin, an exudation from it in the shape of a fluid which is spread out as a thin layer, and dries up into flattened scales. The cuticle is composed chiefly of these scales, and is constantly being rubbed off as scurf, while new layers are forming underneath. The lower, softer layer of the scarfskin, called the malpighian layer, or rete mucosum, is the seat of color. In this part the cells contain a pigment incorporated with the elementary granules, which gives to the various races their several shades of color. The depth of hue is dependent entirely on the amount of this coloring matter.

The True Skin, which is called cutis, derma or corium, is a kind of web, woven of small fibers collected into strands. In the upper portion, the web is fine and firm, but grows coarser below. Connected with its under surface is a fibrous web in which the fat is deposited. Upon its upper surface is the sensitive or papillary layer, composed of bloodvessels and nerves, doubled into loops, which give little prominences called papillae. Fig. 43 gives an ideal view of these elevations, composed as they are, of a nerve, an artery, and a vein, lying side by side; 1, 1, represent the true skin; 2, 2, the papillary layer; 3, 3, the arteries ; 4, 4, the vein; and 5, 5, the nerves of the papillae. The arteries, veins, and nerves are spread over the true skin in great numbers,so profusely, that it is impossible to push the point of the finest needle into it, without piercing a bloodvessel and a nerve. Fig. 44 gives a view of the skin: a, a, the cuticle; b, b, the colored layer of the cuticle; c, c, d, d, the true skin; e, e, e, fat cells,fff sweattubes. The lymphatics are very numerous in the skin, besides which there are oilglands and tubes, and sweatglands and tubes.

The Oil Glands are imbedded in the skin, and communicate with the surface by small tubes. They are most abundant on the face, nose and ears. Fig 45 shows an oil gland, a , being the gland b, the tube, and c, its mouth.

Sweat Apparatus consist of small tubes which pass down through the true skin, and terminate in the meshes at the bottom, where it coils upon its self into a kind of bundle called perspiratory gland. Fig 46 gives one of these tubes , with thee gland magnified forty diameters:1 being the coiled tube or gland; 2 the two excretory ducts from the gland. These uniting form one spira ltube ,which opens at 4 which is the surface of the cuticle; 3 are the fat cells The hair and nails are appendages of the skin.

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