Chapter 1 - Anatomy
Structure of the body
Chemical Properties of the Body
Physical Properties of the Body
Vital Properties of the Body
The Human Skeleton - Diagram
Anatomy of the Bones
Bones of the Head
Bones of the Trunk
Bones of the Upper Extremities
Bones of the Lower Extremities
The joints
Uses of the Bones
The Muscles
The Muscles - Front Diagram
The Muscles - Back Diagram
The Teeth
Uses of the Teeth
Digestive Organs
Urinary System
Respiratory Organs
Organs of Circulation
Absorbent Vessels
Organs of Secretion
Vocal Organs
The Skin
The Nervous System
Organs of Sight
Organs of Hearing

1.7 Anatomy of the Bones

ANATOMY OF THE BONES. The human skeleton is composed of two hundred and eight bones, the teeth not included.

When fastened together by natural ligaments, the bones are said to form a natural skeleton; when attached by wires, an artificial skeleton.

In Figure 2,--1, 1, represent the spinal column; 2, the skull; 3, the lower jaw; 4, the breastbone (sternum) ; 6, the ribs; 7, the collarbone; 8, the bone of the upper arm (humerus); 9, the shoulder joint; 10, the radius; 11, the ulna; 12, the elbowjoint; 13, the wrist; 14, the hand; 15, the haunchbone; 16, the sacrum; 17, the hipjoint; 18, the thighbone ; 19, the kneecap (patella); 20, the kneejoint; 21, the fibula; 22, the tibia; 23, anklejoint; 24, the foot; 27, 28, 29, the ligaments of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist ;30, the large artery of the arm; 31, the ligaments of the hipjoint; 32, the large bloodvessels of the thigh; 33, the artery of the leg; 34, 35, 36, the ligaments of the kneecap, knee, and ankle.

The protuberances or swellings in certain parts of the bones are called processes, and are the points to which muscles and ligaments are fastened.

The bones are supplied with nutritive vessels, and, like other parts of the body, are formed from the blood. At first they are comparatively soft and cartilaginous. After a time, in the young animal, they begin to change to bone at certain places, called points of ossification. They are covered with a strong, fibrous membrane called the periosteum. A somewhat similar covering upon the cartilages has the name of perichondrium, and that which covers the skull is the perieranium.

The bones are compounded of earthy and animal matter. From the former -- phosphate and carbonate of lime -- they receive their strength; from the latter -- cartilage -- they derive their life.

Put a bone for a few days into diluted muriatic acid, -- one part of acid to six of water, -- and the phosphate and carbonate of lime will all be removed, while the bone will remain the same in shape. It will now be comparatively soft, and may be bent, or even tied into a knot without breaking. Place a similar bone in the fire for a few hours, and it will also retain its shape, but the cartilaginous portion will be gone. It is now brittle, and may be picked in pieces with the fingers.

The bones are divided into those of the head, thirty; of the body, fifty-four; of the upper limbs, sixty-four; and of the lower limbs, sixty.

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