Chapter 1 - Anatomy
Anatomy
Structure of the body
Chemical Properties of the Body
Physical Properties of the Body
Vital Properties of the Body
The Human Skeleton - Diagram
Anatomy of the Bones
Bones of the Head
Bones of the Trunk
Bones of the Upper Extremities
Bones of the Lower Extremities
The joints
Uses of the Bones
The Muscles
The Muscles - Front Diagram
The Muscles - Back Diagram
The Teeth
Uses of the Teeth
Digestive Organs
Urinary System
Respiratory Organs
Organs of Circulation
Absorbent Vessels
Organs of Secretion
Vocal Organs
The Skin
The Nervous System
Organs of Sight
Organs of Hearing

1.9 Bones of the Trunk

BONES OF THE TRUNK

In the trunk there are twenty four ribs; twenty four pieces in the back bone or spinal column; four bones in the pelvis and hips; one breast bone called sternum; and a bone at the base of the tounge called hyoides. They are so put together as to form two great cavities , namely, the thorax or chest and the abdomen or belly. The ribs, connecting with the backbone behind the breastbone in front, form the thorax, which contain the lungs and heart. Fig 6 shows the natural form of the healthy chest: 1, is the spine; 2, 2, the collarbones; 3, 3, the seven upper, or true ribs; 4, 4, the five lower or false ribs; 5, the breastbone to which the true ribs are united; 6, the swordshaped cartilage which constitutes the lower end of the breastbone, called ensiform cartilage ; 7, 7, the upper part of two lungs; 8, 8, the right lung, seen between the ribs; 9, 9, the left lung; 10, 10, the heart; 11, 11, the diaphragm, or midriff; 12, 12, the liver; 13, 13, the stomach, 14, 14, the second stomach, or duodenum; 15, the transverse colon; 16, the upper part of the colon on right side; 17, upper part of colon on left side.

Each piece of the spinal column is called a vertebra. Upon every one of these are seven projections called processes a part of which linking the bones together, and the rest to furnish attachments for the muscles of the back. The projections are linked together in such a way, that a continuous channel or opening run down through the whole, in which is lodged the spinal cord, or medulla spinalis. This nervous cord is connected with the base of the brain, and is a kind of continuation of it. Between all the vertebrae are certain cartilaginous cushions, which, when compressed, spring back, like India rubber, and thus Protect the brain from being injuriously jarred by running,leaping, or walking.

The pelvis has four bones: the two nameless bones in, nominata, the sacrum, and the coccyx. In the side of each of the nameless bones is a deep, smooth cavity, called the acetabulum. Into this the round bead of the thighbone is nicely fitted. When the bone is thrown out of this cavity, the hip is said to be out of joint. The sacrum took its name from the fact that the heathens used to offer it in sacrifice. With them, it was the sacred bone. The coccyx is the lower termination of the backbone. These bones are represented in Fig. 8: 1, 1, being the innominata; 2, the sacrum; 3, the coccyx; 4, 4, the acetabulum: a, a, the pubic portion of the nameless bones; d, the arch of the pubes; e, the union of the sacrum and the lower end of the spinal column

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