Chapter 15 - Accidents
Apparent Death from Noxious Vapors
Poisoning and Antidotes
Mineral Poisoning
Vegetable and Other Poisons
How to Lift and Transport the Sick and Injured - Diagram

15.8 Mineral Poisoning

Mineral Poisons.

Poisoning by Ammonia.

WATER of ammonia, or hartshorn, if taken in an undiluted state, acts as a violent poison.
When this accident happens, give vinegar instantly, mixed with a little water. Vinegar is an acid, and ammonia is an alkali; acids and alkalis neutralize each other.

Poisoning by Antimony.

TARTAR emetic, and wine of antimony, are sometimes taken by accident in large doses, so as to act as poisons, and cause dangerous vomiting and prostration.

Give a tea of slippery elm, flax seed, marshmallow, etc.; also syrup of poppies, paregoric, or laudanum in twenty drop doses. To neutralize the poison, give a strong solution of tannin, or an infusion of oak bark, or nutgalls.

Poisoning by Arsenic.

Use, the stomach pump instantly, if one is to be bad; if not, give twenty grains of sulphate of zinc (white vitriol) in a little warm water; and promote the vomiting by filling the stomach with large draughts of warm or cold milk, sweetened water, or flax seed tea. Or, vomiting may be induced still more quickly, by giving a large tablespoonful of strong ground mustard, mixed with a teacupful of water.

But the best antidote for arsenic is hydrated sesquioxide of iron. Mix a tablespoonful of this with water, and give this amount every five or ten minutes, until half a dozen doses are taken.

Treat the inflammation of the stomach which follows, by friction, a bland liquid diet, mucilaginous drinks, etc.

Poisoning by Verdigris, or Acetate of Copper.

COOKING utensils made of copper never ought to be tolerated; yet they are used; and it is from the verdigris which forms upon them that most of the cases of poisoning by copper happen.

Give an emetic instantly, and then two teaspoonfuls of carbonate of soda (baking soda) in a tumblerful of water, to be repeated in ten minutes. White of eggs diffused in water, and mucilaginous drinks, are proper.

Poisoning by Corrosive Sublimate.

This is the common bed bug poison, and is often taken by mistake.
Mix up quickly the whites of a dozen eggs, with two pints of cold water, and give a glassful of the mixture every two minutes till the stomach can contain no more. If there are not eggs enough at hand, take what there are, and make UP the deficiency with milk. Wheat flour, mixed with watery is & good remedy. Use the stomach pump, if it is at hand.

Poisoning by Sugar of Lead, or Acetate of Lead.
Give a ground mustard or a sulphate of zinc emetic; then give diluted sulphuric acid, or either epsom or glauber's salts.

Poisoning by Strong Lye.
STRONG lye is sometimes swallowed by children. The remedy is vinegar, or oil. Vinegar will convert the lye into acetate of potash, and any of the oils will unite with it and form soap; and neither the acetate of potash nor soap will materially injure the stomach.

Poisoning by Nitric, Muriatic, or Sulphuric Acid.
>WHEN either one of these acids is swallowed, not a moment of time is to be lost. Fill the patient full of calcined magnesia stirred up in water. This is the best remedy; but if it is not to be had, give half an ounce of soap in a pint of water. If neither are at hand, give chalk, or whiting, in water, or even pound fine some of the plastering of the room, and give it in water.

Poisoning by Nitrate of Potash, called Nitre, or Saltpetre.
INDUCE, vomiting by lukewarm water, and by tickling the throat with a feather; but avoid irritating the stomach with the ordinary emetics.

Poisoning by White Vitriol.
PROVOKE, vomiting by warm drinks, and by tickling the throat, and give freely carbonate of soda, in water.

Poisoning by Oxalic Acid.

This resembles epsom salt, and is liable to be taken for salts by mistake. The two can always be distinguished by touching a little to the tongue. Epsom salts taste bitter; oxalic acid, very sour.
In cases of poison from oxalic acid, give magnesia in water as quickly as possible. When this is not at hand, give chalk, or lime, or saleratus. Use the stomach pump, if it is to be had.

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