Chapter 17 - Surgical Diseases
Modern Surgery
Inflammation
Suppuration and Abscess
Mortification
Pyaemia
Ulceration and Ulcers
Boils
Carbuncle
Malignant Pustule
Burns and Scalds
Frost Bite
Chilblains
Mechanical,Injuries
Septic Wounds
Incised Wounds
Rules for Examining and Dressing Wounds
Antiseptic Dressings
Way Wounds Unite
Punctured Wounds
Lacerated Wounds
Granulation and Scarification
Gunshot Wounds
Poisoned Wounds
Fractures
Way Broken Bones Unite
Dislocations
Different Diseases of Bones
Pereostitis
Necrosis
Coxalgia
White Swelling
Bunions
Whitlow
Stiff Joint
Tumors
Cancer
Polypus
Piles
Wens
Aneurisms
Bronchocele
Water in the Scrotum
Blood in the Scrotum
Phlebitis
Varicose Veins
Hernia
Varicocele
Deformities and Irritations of the Spine
Wry Neck
Foreign Bodies in the Eye
Stye
Inflammation of the Edge of the Eyelids
Disorder of the Lashes
Ptosis
Chronic Inflammation of the Lachrymal Sac
Opthalmia
Inflammation of the Cornea
Inflammation of the Iris
Weakness of Sight
Imperfect Vision
Short and Long Sight
Squinting
Affections of the Ear
Inflammation of the Meatus
Wax in the Ear
Earache
Inflammation of the Tympanum, Deafness
Bleeding from the Nose
Ingrowing Toe Nail
Chafing and Excoriation
Foreign Substances
Bleeding from Wounds
Proud Flesh
Ambrine
Compression of Arteries to Stop the Flow of Blood
Anesthetics
Care of the Teeth
Rotting of the Teeth
Tooth-Ache
Filling Teeth
The First Teeth
Cleaning the Teeth
Ulcer of the Stomach
Glanders
X-Ray
Radium
Trachoma
Arterio-Sclerosis
Flatfoot
Riggs' Disease
Bandages

17.10 Burns and Scalds

Chemical Injuries.

THESE are of two kinds, produced by causes of an exactly opposite nature. The first are Burns and Scalds.

A burn is the effect of concentrated heat acting upon living tissues. The effects are inflammation, and sometimes complete disorganization and destruction of the parts.

A scald is an injury produced by applying hot water or other fluid, to the skin or mucous membrane. The natural temperature of the human body is ninety eight degrees; that of boiling water, two hundred and twelve degrees. Bringing the skin in contact with a fluid heated so far above it, produces redness and pain; and when nothing is done instantly to ward off the injury, the scarf skin Is raised from the true skin in the form of a blister, filled with water.
The degree of danger from a burn or scald depends upon the extent of the injured surface, and also upon the depth of the injury. An extensive scald or burn may prove fatal in a few hours, the patient never rallying from the first prostration. These injuries are most dangerous when upon the head, neck, chest and belly. Old persons, and those who are feeble and have shattered constitutions, will sink under burns and scalds from which robust persons will suffer but little.

Treatment. For slight burns and scalds, make cold applications. Put the injured part in very cold water, or lay upon it pieces of linen, or lint, wet with vinegar and water, or rose water and sugar of lead (238), or diluted solution of acetate of ammonia. When these are not to be quickly had, lay on scraped raw potatoes, which is one of the best remedies to give immediate relief. The object is to reduce the inflammation, and to prevent blistering. They must, therefore be put on very soon. If the scald be extensive, and on the body, producing shivering, faintness, paleness and coldness of the skin, and a small pulse, cold applications are not proper. In such case we may use warm fomentations, or, in the case of a child, the warm bath. A liniment of spirits of turpentine, linseed oil, etc. (194), makes an excellent application. Also (371).
Raw cotton, spread out thin, and laid upon a burn, is a good dressing, and one which is much used. So is flour sprinkled upon the injured surface with a dredger. For loosening the flour when it is to be taken off, poultices are useful .
Keep the air from the wound as much as possible. With this view, do not remove the dressing often, and when a cold lotion is merely pour it upon the rags, letting them remain undisturbed. used Stimulate and narcotize the patient if exhausted by the shock of the burn. Nothing is more generally used than carron oil, which is composed of equal parts of linseed oil and lime water. It soothes, heals and promotes granulation.

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