Chapter 17 - Surgical Diseases
Modern Surgery
Inflammation
Suppuration and Abscess
Mortification
Pyaemia
Ulceration and Ulcers
Boils
Carbuncle
Malignant Pustule
Burns and Scalds
Frost Bite
Chilblains
Mechanical,Injuries
Septic Wounds
Incised Wounds
Rules for Examining and Dressing Wounds
Antiseptic Dressings
Way Wounds Unite
Punctured Wounds
Lacerated Wounds
Granulation and Scarification
Gunshot Wounds
Poisoned Wounds
Fractures
Way Broken Bones Unite
Dislocations
Different Diseases of Bones
Pereostitis
Necrosis
Coxalgia
White Swelling
Bunions
Whitlow
Stiff Joint
Tumors
Cancer
Polypus
Piles
Wens
Aneurisms
Bronchocele
Water in the Scrotum
Blood in the Scrotum
Phlebitis
Varicose Veins
Hernia
Varicocele
Deformities and Irritations of the Spine
Wry Neck
Foreign Bodies in the Eye
Stye
Inflammation of the Edge of the Eyelids
Disorder of the Lashes
Ptosis
Chronic Inflammation of the Lachrymal Sac
Opthalmia
Inflammation of the Cornea
Inflammation of the Iris
Weakness of Sight
Imperfect Vision
Short and Long Sight
Squinting
Affections of the Ear
Inflammation of the Meatus
Wax in the Ear
Earache
Inflammation of the Tympanum, Deafness
Bleeding from the Nose
Ingrowing Toe Nail
Chafing and Excoriation
Foreign Substances
Bleeding from Wounds
Proud Flesh
Ambrine
Compression of Arteries to Stop the Flow of Blood
Anesthetics
Care of the Teeth
Rotting of the Teeth
Tooth-Ache
Filling Teeth
The First Teeth
Cleaning the Teeth
Ulcer of the Stomach
Glanders
X-Ray
Radium
Trachoma
Arterio-Sclerosis
Flatfoot
Riggs' Disease
Bandages

17.61 Short and Long Sight

Short and Long Sight.

Short Sight, called myopia, depends on too great a convexity of the cornea, or crystaline lens, or vitreous humor, one or all, and the consequent formation of the image of the object inspected a little in front of the optic nerve, or retina, as at a (Fig. 183), instead of at b, where it should be formed. The rays of light are brought to a focus before they reach the retina.

Children are either born with this defect, or it is brought on by too close study, or by long application of the eyes to minute objects.
It may be remedied frequently by exercising the eyes in looking at distant objects. Children afflicted in this way should have their studies abridged, and their exercise in the open air increased. While studying they should have some apparatus applied to them which shall keep the chin elevated, so that the head cannot be dropped too low, and the eyes brought too near the book. And the book should each day be placed a very little further from the eyes.
Glasses worn by persons having this defect of vision should be concave, as at c.



Long Sight, or presbyopia, depends on the humors of the eye not being convex enough. In this case, the image of the inspected object is formed beyond the optic nerve, as at d (Fig. 184). This is one of the earliest signs of advancing age.
This defect is to be remedied by glasses which are convex, . Persons in the early autumn of life must not resort to glasses too hastily, or, indeed, until they are compelled to, nor should they change those first used too soon. Glasses should make objects look distinct and bright, but not larger than natural.

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