Chapter 28 - Medicinals A - Z

28.15 O

Oil of Cajuput ( Oleum Cajuputi). This oil is obtained from the leaves of the East Indian tree cajuputi. It is diaphoretic and antispasmodic, and a powerful diffusive stimulant. Given in cramps of the stomach and bowels, colic, flatulency, hysterics, and chronic rheumatism. It is considerably used as an ingredient in liniments, to be applied externally in rheumatism and neuralgia. Dose, from one to three drops, on sugar.

Oil of Turpentine (Oleum Terebinthine). This is generally called spirits of turpentine, and is obtained by distilling turpentine. As a medicine it is stimulant, cathartic, diuretic, anthelmintic, and astringent. In large doses it causes strangury and other unpleasant symptoms. The dose is from five to twenty drops, repeated every two or three hours. Fifteen drops, taken every fifteen minutes or half hour, powerfully restrains bleeding from the lungs, and is, perhaps, the best remedy we have for this frightful accident. It is also very efficacious in checking other hemorrhages. Externally is used considerably as an ingredient in liniments and rubefacient in rheumatism, paralysis, etc. Combined with linseed oil, it is much used for burns and scalds.

Olive Oil ( Oleum Olive). This oil, often called sweet oil, is expressed from the fruit of the olive tree, Olea Europea. It is nutrient and emollient, and, in doses of one to two fluid ounces, laxative. It is much employed as a constituent of cerates, liniments, and plasters.

Onion (Allium Cepa). The medicinal properties of the onion are much like those of garlic. The juice, mixed with sugar, is used to some extent as a remedy for the coughs and colds of infants. Roasted onions, applied as a poultice, hasten the suppuration of boils, tumors. etc. They are also useful, in some cases, applied as drafts to the feet. Opium. This is the hardened juice of the unripe seed of the poppy, Papaver Somniferum. It is a stimulant narcotic. A moderate dose increases the fullness and frequency of the pulse, augments the warmth of the skin, invigorates the muscular system, quickens the senses, animates the spirits, and gives energy to the mental faculties. Its operation is directed with special force to the brain, which it sometimes excites to intoxication and delirium, which excitement subsides in a short time, and is followed by a delightful calmness and placidity of mind, all care and anxiety being banished, and the thoughts yielded to the control of pleasing fancies. At the end of an hour or more, this reverie is succeeded by sleep, which, at the end of eight or ten hours, passes off, and is followed by headache, nausea, tremors, and other nervous disturbances. Large doses are followed by shorter periods of exhilaration and excitement, and by more protracted sleep.

Opium is used in medicine to produce gentle perspiration, relieve pain, and lessen . nervous excitability in all febrile and inflammatory diseases; also as an antispasmodic in hysterics, colic, convulsions, coughs, etc. It should not be used in cases of constipation of the bowels. A solution, composed of two grains of opium to one ounce of water, is sometimes a valuable injection in gonorrhea and spasmodic stricture. Dose, as t stimulant, one quarter to one half a grain; as e, narcotic, one to two grains; in some spasmodic affections it is given in very large doses. Use only under the direction of a physician. Morphia, generally called morphine, is one of the alkaloid principles of opium. It is used under the various forms of sulphate, muriate, acetate, and valerianate of morphia, all having the general properties of opium, and are given for similar purposes, in doses of one eighth to one quarter of a grain. One sixth of a grain is equal to one grain of opium. Strong coffee is an excellent antidote to the poisonous effects both of opium and morphia. A solution of morphia may be made by adding ten grains of the salt to one fluid ounce and a half of distilled water, and half an ounce of diluted alcohol, and then adding two drops of sulphuric acid, if it be the sulphate of morphia, or two drops of acetic acid, if it be the acetate of morphia, or two drops of muriatic acid, if it be the muriate of morphia. The effects of morphia may be obtained by sprinkling some of it on a blistered surface.

Orange Peel (Aurantii Cortex). The orange' is the fruit of a tree belonging to the tropical climates. Orange juice is a pleasant refrigerant, useful in fevers, and particularly in scurvy. Sick persons sucking the juice of the orange, should be careful not to swallow any of the skinny portion, or the peel. The peel of the orange is chiefly employed to give a pleasant flavor to other medicines, and to prevent their nauseating properties. It is a mild tonic, carminative, and stomachic, and improves the bitter infusions and decoctions of gentian, quassia, colombo, and Peruvian bark. Orange peel should never be given in substance. Preparations. Fluid extract, dose, half a dram to two drams; tincture, one ounce and three quarters to a pint of diluted alcohol, chiefly used as an addition to infusions, etc.; syrup, two ounces fluid extract or tincture to a pint of simple syrup, used with water as an agreeable drink.

Origanum ( Origanum Vulgare). A perennial herb growing in* Europe and this country. The warm infusion of it causes perspiration, and promotesŐ the menstrual discharge, when interrupted by a cold. The oil of origanum is a very useful ingredient in several stimulant and rubefacient liniments.

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