Chapter 28 - Medicinals A - Z

28.9 I

Iceland Moss (Cetraria Islandica). This plant is found in the northern latitudes, both of the old and new world, and is abundant on the mountains and in the sandy plains of New England. It received its name from its prevalence in Iceland, in which country, as well as in Lapland, it serves, in consequence of the gum and starch it contains, as food for the inhabitants. It is demulcent, tonic, and nutritious, and is well fitted to relieve affections of the mucous membranes of the lungs and bowels, connected with debility of the digestive organs; it is given therefore in chronic bronchitis and other affections of the chest, attended with copious expectoration, especially, when the matter discharged is purulent; also in dyspepsia, chronic dysentery, and diarrhea. It is usually employed in the form of decoction; and is much used in the common article of diet called blanc mange.

Ice Plant (Monotropa Uniflora). This perennial plant, found in various parts of the country, is snow white, resembling frozen jelly, and is juicy and tender, dissolving in the bands like ice. The flowers are in shape like a pipe; hence it is called the pipe plant. The root is the medicinal part, and is tonic, nervine, and antispasmodic. It has also been considered sedative and diaphoretic; and the powder has been sometimes used in the place of opium. It is said to be valuable in epilepsy, chorea, and other spasmodic affections. Dose of the powdered root, from thirty to sixty grains, two to three times a day.

Indian Hemp (Apoeynum Cannabinum). This perennial plant resembles bitter root, and grows in similar situations. The root is powerfully emetic, and in decoction, diuretic and diaphoretic. It diminishes the frequency of the pulse, and produces drowsiness. It has great efficacy in dropsy. Preparations. Fluid extract, dose, as a tonic, five to ten drops; as an emetic, twenty to twenty five drops; solid extract, dose, one to three grains; tincture, dose, one to two drams, as a tonic, half an ounce to an ounce, as an emetic; infusion, half an ounce to a pint of water; dose, half an ounce to an ounce.

Indian Turnip (Arum Triphyllum). This is a perennial plant, growing in damp places in North and South America, and known by the name of dragon root. The root when chewed is excessively acrid, producing a biting sensation which may be somewhat relieved by milk. The fresh root is acrid, expectorant, and diaphoretic, and has been used in asthma, whooping cough, chronic bronchitis, chronic rheumatism, and colic, and externally in scrofulous tumors, scald head, and other skin disorders. Dose of the grated root, in syrup or mucilage, ten grains, three or four times a day.

Iodine (Iodinum). This is prepared from the ashes of kelp, or sea weed, and is in small bluish black, shining scales. It is alterative, tonic, and somewhat diuretic. It has been chiefly employed in diseases of the absorbent and glandular system, particularly scrofula, goiter, and glandular tumors generally. Dose, in substance, half a grain, two or three times a day, in form of pill; in form of tincture, three to five drops.

Iodide of Potassium (Potassii Iodidum) This is one of the preparations of iodine, and is sometimes improperly called hydriodate of potassa. It is formed by decomposing the iodide of iron by carbonate of potassa. It is used for the same purposes as iodine, but chiefly as an alterative in tertiary syphilis, for which it is a specific; also in some forms of chronic rheumatism, and in leprosy. Dose of the salt, from two to fifteen grains. It is much combined with bitter tinctures, and particularly with the compound preparations of sarsaparilla, yellow dock, and queen's root. The acids and metallic salts are incompatible with it.

Ipecacuanha. This is a small perennial plant, growing in moist woods, in several countries of South America. The root is the part used. It is a very valuable emetic, in large doses; in smaller doses, it is sudorific and expectorant. Used to produce vomiting in the commencement of fevers, inflammatory diseases, swelled testicles, and before the paroxysms of ague; and to excite nausea in dysentery, asthma, whooping cough, various hemorrhages, and inflammation ' of the lungs; and, combined with opium, to produce diaphoresis in rheumatism, gout, and febrile complaints. Dose, as an emetic, from fifteen to thirty grains; to excite nausea, from one to. three grains; and to produce diaphoresis, two to six grains, with one grain of opium. Preparations. Fluid extract, dose, as an expectorant, five to eight drops; as an emetic, half a dram to a dram; tincture, half an ounce to an ounce; wine of ipecac, three ounces to one pint of sherry wine, dose, a quarter to half a dram, as an expectorant; two and a half to three drams as an emetic. The following is a useful expectorant for young children: fluid extract of ipecac, two drams; syrup of tolu, five drams; mucilage of gum arabic, one ounce; sherry wine, three drams, mix. Dose, one dram.

Iron (Ferrum). As this is the most abundant, so is it the most useful of all the metals. It is widely diffused through the mineral, the vegetable, and the animal kingdoms. It is an essential constituent in the blood of man, and as a medicine it has great value, being a powerful tonic. In most cases where the blood is thin and reduced, iron is our best remedy; it raises the pulse, promotes the secretions, and gives color, body, and nutritive qualities to the blood. It is much used, in some one of its prepared forms, in chronic anemia, chlorosis, hysterics, whites, rickets, chorea, dyspepsia, neuralgia, and particularly consumption. Care should be taken in using the various preparations of iron, not to let the remedy touch the teeth. It is well to take them, when not in pill form, through a glass tube. The following are most of the chemical preparations of iron used in medicine:

Ammonia Citrate of Iron (Ferri Ammonio Citras). This is in the form of thin scales, of a beautiful garnet red color, and has a slightly acid taste. It is very soluble in water. Its great solubility gives it some advantage over the citrate. The dose is five grains, three times a day, in solution.

Black Oxide of Iron (Ferri Oxidum Nigrum). This is a dark, grayish black powder, unchangeable in the air, and having magnetic properties. It is a valuable chalybeate, and may be given in five to ten grain doses.

Citrate of Iron (Ferri Citras). This is a valuable preparation of iron. It is soluble in water. Usually given in the form of pill, in two to three grain doses, three times a day.

Citrate of Iron and Quinia (Ferri et Quinim Citras). In the form of shining scales, garnet colored, and soluble in water. An excellent antiperiodic and tonic. Given in intermittents, when the blood is low, etc. Dose, five to eight grains, two or three times a day.

Citrate of Iron and Strychnia. It is a valuable preparation, and combines the properties of iron and strychnia, and has proved an efficacious remedy in atonic dyspepsia, absence of the menses, St. Vitus's dance, green sickness, hysterics, etc. It is a beautiful salt, looking like citrate of iron, except that it is a little darker. Three grains of the iron are combined with one sixteenth of a grain of strychnia.

Hydrated Oxide of Iron (Ferri Oxidum Hydratum). This is in a reddish brown, moist mass, not much used in medicine, except as an antidote to the poison of arsenic, for which it is very valuable. It should be given in tablespoonful doses, often repeated.

Iodide of Iron (Ferri lodidum). The iodide of iron is a crystalline substance, of a greenish black color and styptic taste. It has tonic, alterative, diuretic, and emmenagogue properties. It is *employed chiefly in scrofulous complaints, swelling of the glands of the neck, chlorosis, absence of the menses, and leucorrhea. In obstinate syphilitic ulcers, and in secondary syphilis, occurring in scrofulous and debilitated subjects, it has been used with success. Dose, three grains, gradually increased to five. It should never be given in the form of a pill, but preferably in combination with simple syrup (see Syrup of Iodide of Iron).

Lactate of Iron (Ferri Lactas). This has the general medicinal properties of the ferruginous preparations. It increases the appetite in a marked degree, and has been used with decided benefit in chlorosis. Dose, one to two grains, three times a day. The dose may be gradually increased. Given in the form of solution, pill, or lozenge.

Phosphate of Iron (Ferri Phosphas). This is a slate colored powder, insoluble in water. It is a valuable remedy in consumption, cancer, and nervous diseases, accompanied by a low state of the blood. Dose, one or two grains, three times a day.

Persalt of Iron (Monsel's Styptic). This is a most valuable styptic, and is used with success in restraining violent bleedings. It produces no irritant effects upon the tissues, and may be used with safety both in slight and extensive surgical operations. Physician, , should have it by them, and will find it very serviceable in sudden emergencies of bleeding. It is prepared in solution and in the form of dry salt. The solution is the most convenient and eligible form, and may be applied as prepared.

Powder of Iron (Ferri Pulvis). This is what is often called iron by hydrogen, or Quevenne's iron. It is an impalpable powder, and of an iron gray color. If black, it is worthless. It is used in anemia, and in all those conditions characterized by deficiency of coloring matter in the blood. The best metallic iron for medicinal use. Dose, from two to five grains, several times a day; to be given in the form of pill.

Precipitated Carbonate of Iron (Ferri Subcarbonas.) This is a reddish powder, insoluble in water. It is tonic, alterative, and emmenagogue, and is used in neuralgia, chorea, chlorosis, anemia, epilepsy, scrofula, etc. Dose, five to twenty grains, three times a day, to be taken in a little water.

Protoxide of Iron (Terri Protoxidum). This is of a dark blue color, and has a tendency to absorb oxygen from the air, which converts it into the sesquioxide. It is a valuable preparation of iron. Dose, from two to five grains, three times a day.

Solution of Protoxide of Iron. The protoxide of iron. is more readily absorbed and assimilated, and agrees better with the stomach than any other preparation of this metal. It is prepared in the form of a syrup, of which the dose is from one to two teaspoonfuls, three times a day.

Solution Protoxide Iron, with Rhubarb and Colombo. This is a composition of protoxide of iron with vegetable tonics. As a remedy in many forms of dyspepsia, it must prove of great value.

Solution Protoxide Iron, with Quinine. This has become a remedy of established reputation. Quinine combined with iron, particularly with the protoxide, must have great advantages as a chalybeate tonic. Each tablespoonful contains half a grain of quinine.

Solution Protoxide of Iron, with Iodide of Potassa. In this preparation the valuable alterative properties of iodide of potassium are connected with iron. It is therefore alterative and tonic, and may be used in scrofulous and other weakened conditions of the system. It is a remedy of decided merit. Three grains of the iodide of potassium are contained in each tablespoonful.

Sulphate of Iron (Ferri Sulphas). This is in the form of transparent crystals, of a pale, bluish green color, and efflorescent in the air. It has a styptic taste, and is soluble in about twice its weight of cold water, but insoluble in alcohol. It is astringent and tonic. In large doses it produces nausea and griping of the bowels. Useful in scrofula and as an astringent in passive hemorrhages, sweats, diabetes, chronic mucous catarrh, leucorrhea and gleet. As a tonic it is useful in dyspepsia.

Syrup of Iodide of Iron (Syrupus Iodidi Ferri). This is an elegant preparation of iodine and iron, and is given in all debilitated conditions of the system, when there is a taint of scrofula. Dose, from twenty to sixty drops, well diluted, at. the moment of taking, with water.

Syrup of Iodide Iron and manganese. This is of a light straw color, prepared from protosulphate of iron, protosulphate of manganese, and iodide of potassium. It is a remedy of unsurpassed efficacy in anemic, scrofulous, syphilitic, and cancerous affections. It is considered superior to the syrup of iodide of iron. Dose, from ten to thirty drops.

Tartrate of Iron and Potassa (Ferri et Potassa Tartras). This is in the form of beautiful shining scales, of a dark ruby color, of a slightly chalybeate taste, and very soluble in water. It is one of the mildest of the salts of iron, and is considerably used in scrofula, weakness of the bowels, general debility, etc. It is much used as a remedy for syphilis, both externally and internally. The dose is ten to twenty five grains in solution.

Tincture of Muriate of Iron (Tinctura Ferri Chloridi). This has a reddish brown, yellowish color, a sour and very styptic taste, and an odor like muriatic ether. It is one of the most active and certain preparations of iron, generally agreeing with the stomach, and much employed for purposes for which iron is used. It is useful in scrofula, gleet, and leucorrhea; also in hemorrhages from the womb, kidneys, and bladder, of a passive character. Dose, from ten to twentyfive drops, gradually increased to one or two drams, two or three times a day. It should be given diluted with water. Valerianate of Iron. This salt is in the form of a dark red powder, having a faint odor, and a taste of valerianic acid. It is soluble in alcohol, and insoluble in water. Given in hysterical affections, complicated with chlorosis. Dose, one grain, several times a day.

Isinglass (Ichthyocolla). A gelatinous substance, prepared from the bladder of fishes. It is soluble in alkaline solutions and diluted acids. In boiling it dissolves and forms a jelly upon cooling, in which form it is chiefly used as a nutritive diet for the sick.

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