Broken Bones Fractures. Make, patient comfortable; put limb in splints before attempting to move the patient. Simple fractures are those where the bone is broken but does not protrude. Compound fractures are those where the broken bone sticks out through the flesh, making a wound.
For simple fractures nothing but putting the limb in splints is necessary. For compound fractures, first bind up the wound and stop bleeding. Then put limb in splints. In all fractures remove clothing from the injured part. Always handle the fractured limb delicately. Lay injured limb upon splints well cushioned, bandage splints firmly so that fragments of bone will not move on each other. If fracture is compound i.e., accompanied by a wound flush with an antiseptic and put gauze next to the wound, cover with an absorbent cotton pad, then with bandage, and put limb in splints as in simple fracture. In all fracture cases after splinting carry the patient to a r)physician on a stretcher, not in the arms. Splints. Splints can be improvised from any handy material, and should be longer than the injured limb and always well padded. In splinting have two splints, one on each side of the limb; one bandage will hold both. For padding, absorbent cotton is the best material. For binding, use triangular bandage. To improvise padding, use grass, straw, soft cloth or soft garment. To improvise bandages, use handkerchiefs, towels, garters, cords, suspenders and straps. Dislocation. DON'T attempt to set dislocated parts. Send for the surgeon. Place part in position easiest to sufferer. Apply wet cloths. Sprains. THE most important thing is absolute rest. Handle a sprain as little as possible. Ankle Sprains. Place folded towel or cloth around the part and cover with bandage. Foot Sprains. Immerse foot in water as hot as can be borne. In both ankle and foot sprains elevate the foot. Wrist Sprains. Apply a padded splint and put the arm in a sling. Fractures of Arms, Legs &c. Of Upper Arm. No splints are required. Tie arms to side with wide bandage. Of Lower Arm. Tie arm in splints and place in a sling.
Fracture of Forearm. Lathes used as emergency splint for fracture at elbow joint. Of Collar Bone. Can be recognized by drooping of the shoulder affected. Support elbow and upper arm to relieve weight from injured point. Lay patient flat on back; no pillow. Keep him so until the physician comes. Don't attempt to set the bone. Of Shoulder Blade. Put arm in large sling, then bandage arm to side. Of Ribs. Lay person on his uninjured side or on back with head and chest elevated. Wrap around chest several times with cotton bandages. If surgeon cannot be reached, wrap whole chest in adhesive plaster.
Emergency splint made with broom for broken leg. Of Thigh. Lay the patient flat on back or a little inclined to injured side; head and shoulders slightly raised. Draw limb out straight. Prepare the splint long enough to reach from waist to ankle; pad well. Bandage limb to splint by bandage above the break and below the break, around the knee, around the ankle and around the waist. Bandage in more than two places. If carrying the patient is necessary, bandage injured limb and sound one together. Of Kneepan. Prepare splint large enough to reach from foot to thigh. Lay patient on back; straighten out injured leg. Place it on splints. Under the knee place a pad three inches thick. Place a similar pad back of heel. Bind splint at ankle and thigh, also below and above knee.
Of Lower Leg. Lay patient on back; pull injured leg down straight and cover with gauze; bandage loosely. Lay injured leg on cushion; draw sides of cushion up around leg and bandage firmly. If cushion is firm no splints are required.
Of Fingers and Toes. Bind up with splints. Be sure that splint is long enough to keep injured member stationary.
Of Bones of Foot. Make a triangular splint of two sticks nailed at right angles. Bind firmly to leg, then to foot.
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