Hemorrhage is said to take place when, from disease or accident, the blood escapes from the vessels in which it is naturally contained, and the fluid lost contains all of the component parts of the blood.
When bleeding occurs from a wound its treatment is entirely within the province of surgery and must be directed toward stopping its flow as soon as possible. The usual methods pursued are tight bandaging of the parts, if the wound is where this can be done. The bandages should be made of firm cotton cloth, varying in width from one inch in small dogs to three inches for horses or cattle, and of varying lengths; for all cases in horses or cattle they should not be less than six feet long, and in some instances much longer; they should be comparatively long in all cases because, through their use, an attempt is being made to stop the flow of blood by applying pressure to the open vessels, and the longer the bandage, within reason, the greater is the possible pressure. If the bandage is made too tight and the parts between it and the heart become much swollen, or the parts between the point of pressure and away from the heart become swollen or cold, the bandage must be loosened, just enough to correct these conditions, but no more. If, after applying the bandage, all goes on well, it will be better not to disturb it for twenty-four or thirty six hours, when it may carefully be removed without danger of setting up the bleeding again. The wound should then be carefully cleaned with one or other of the lysol, carbolic acid, or corrosive sublimate solutions already recommended; and recovered with a clean, shorter bandage, once or twice daily, until healed over.
If the wound is in a part that cannot be bandaged the hole can be plugged with cotton or oakum which has been saturated with the tincture of the chloride of iron, and must be held in place by stitching the skin over it, or in any other way that may be possible under the existing circumstances, for as long as from twenty-four to thirty six hours, when the plug should be removed and the wound dressed as directed.
Of course there are many instances of shallow or slight wounds from which, if the animal is kept still, the blood will cease to flow of its own accord after a little time; or may be helped to do so by the use of a few stitches taken in the skin. If the wound is a large one, even if the bleeding has been stopped, a veterinarian had better be called in) ff possible.
Spontaneous Bleeding, as it is called, is that in which internal
hemorrhages take place; and these occur variously, as from the nose or mouth, when they are generally not of great importance; or into the stomach, when the blood escapes through the mouth; the lungs, when the show is made through the nostrils and is accompanied by more or less coughing; from the rectum, as in the case of bleeding piles; from some part of the urinary apparatus, when it escapes through the natural passages of the urine; and from the uterus or vagina. Besides these, bleeding may take place into the bowels, the cavities of the chest or abdomen, or into a solid gland, as the liver or spleen: an of which happenings will require the services of the skilled veterinarian or physician; as will an outpour of blood into the brain of animals (apoplexy), the symptoms of which are sudden loss of consciousness with more or less paralysis. As this last condition arises, if not in connection with a blow upon the head, because of some unappreciated organic disease of the walls of the blood vessels of the brain, its permanent cure is not to be hoped for.
The symptoms of important hemorrhages, whether the blood is lost externally or internally, are: paleness of the visible membranes, as in the mouth, coolness or coldness of the extremities, as the legs or ears; and increased frequency of the pulse with a low internal temperature of the body.
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