Diseases of the Breathing Apparatus
This consists of an acute or sub acute inflammation of the membrane lining the nostrils, and upper air passages; it may become complicated with sore throat or bronchitis.
Causes. It does not always arise from "taking cold," as is often supposed, but also from a too sudden change of air, from exposure to wet, bad ventilation, damp buildings, as in new brick structures before the walls have become dry; and is commonly seen among horses that are brought from country to city stables, or in animals that may have inhaled considerable dust.
General Symptoms. There is more or less fever, thirst, loss of appetite, frequent quick pulse, slight elevation of temperature, with, perhaps, a little increase in breathing; and a discharge from the nose. In the horse, in addition to these, there will be sneezing, blowing from the nose, redness and, at first, dryness of the membrane fining the nostrils, which, however, is soon followed by a discharge from them of a thin colorless and more or less irritating secretion, which soon becomes thicker, cloudy, puss like and profuse. At the end of some two days the feverish symptoms begin to subside and, if the discharge is comparatively free from pus, return to health takes place within ten to fourteen days. Or else, by extension downward of the inflammation of the nasal membrane, there may be sore throat, bronchitis, or even lobular pneumonia.
In cattle catarrh is of comparatively rare occurrence, and its symptoms in them will be confined to those of a general nature.
. In sheep the fever is more apt to be of an acute type, with comparatively rapid breathing, sneezing, coughing and shaking of the head. The nose is extended, and there is a greater tendency toward sore throat, bronchitis, or pneumonia. The discharge from the nostrils is more yellow and heavier; and the disorder is apt to run a longer course, perhaps continuing for several weeks.
In dogs catarrh is far from infrequent; and may easily be mistaken for distemper, at first. In addition to the general symptoms there is a nasal discharge, which is either colorless or thick and grayish, considerable sneezing, with wheezing and bubbling as he breathes,
Treatment. In horses, cattle, and dogs follow that given for simple inflammation, keeping the nose, and eyes if necessary, as well cleaned as possible, with the lysol solution. (See prescriptions.)
In sheep, besides the usual treatment, it will generally be better to give a stimulant or tonic as: one teaspoonful of sweet spirits of niter, in a tablespoonful of cold water, three times daily. Or the following tonic: Tincture of iron, two drams, tincture of gingerroot and tincture of gentian root, one half ounce each, water, one pint; mix and give two tablespoonfuls three times daily; or, if more convenient, all three doses may be given together, at night.
In chronic nasal discharges the services of a veterinarian should be obtained, as the condition may be due to so many different causes; as diseased teeth, bones of the head, structures in the throat, etc.; the treatment of which must be surgical.
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