Causes. Inflammation of the structures composing and surrounding the upper extremity of the windpipe (larynx), occurs quite commonly in all the animals as a result of precisely the same conditions, already described as being those of catarrhal fever.
General Symptoms. There will be loss of appetite, great thirst, attended, if the inflammation is extended to the top of the gullet (pharynx), as often happens, with difficulty in swallowing either liquids or solids. The head is held more or less stiffly, with the nose extended, and there is tenderness upon pressure over the larynx; first a hard, dry, spasmodic cough; reddened membranes; and more or less fever as shown by a frequent pulse, quickened breathing and increased temperature. As the disease goes on the animal does not cough so often, the cough is more moist, and there is a considerable quantity of ropy, sticky discharge, mixed with saliva, in the back part of the mouth, with or without a slight discharge from the nostrils. Or, more rarely, following these symptoms, such a rapid and extensive effusion takes place into the substance of and about the larynx as to seriously and rapidly threaten the life of the animal from suffocation. The breathing becomes suddenly much more difficult, the inspirations particularly prolonged and attended with a peculiar harsh or whistling sound, followed by a short expiration. The nose is very much extended, the eyeballs somewhat bulged outward, with tears running freely from the eyes. The expression of the face becomes anxious, the nostrils, dilated as much as possible, show a red membrane, and there is a frequent hoarse, rasping cough. The extremities are cold, the bodies of horses are covered by patchy sweatings. The pulse is much increased in number and feels wiry to the touch, the temperature rises to from 103 to 106. If this condition continues for more than a short time stupor is shown, followed if relief is not given, shortly, by death from suffocation.
The disorder is more frequently seen in horses and dogs than in
cattle and sheep, still it affects them all, at times, and the symptoms
do not vary materially between one and the other.
In, by far, the great number of cases, after a few days of considerable annoyance, chiefly from coughing and difficulty in breathing, the animal will gradually regain his former condition.
Treatment. AR directions for the general care of fevered
animals having been carried out, the desirability of giving medicines excepting those that will be taken with the food or water, becomes a question of moment. If there is very much soreness or, especially, if the power of swallowing is interfered with, there is no doubt that trying to force anything in the way of a drench or pill down the throat is liable to produce a condition bordering upon strangulation, and so the attempt will be better not made. In instances when the irritation of the throat is not extreme medicines may be given, with advantage, in the form of an "electuary," that is made into the consistency of soft gum, and then pressed into the outer side of one of the back teeth, from whence it will gradually dissolve and be swallowed, as: solid extract of belladonna and powdered camphor of each one ounce; rub these well together and add a sufficient quantity of honey to make the desired consistency.' The mass is then to be divided into eight equal parts, of which one may be used each morning and night, in the way above described. Another very useful prescription is to place one teaspoonful of the fluid extract of belladonna upon the tongue, pretty well back in the mouth, three times a day: this small amount will not be large enough to be "spit out" by the animal, or to cause coughing, and the soothing effect of the belladonna will, at times, be very beneficial. This may be given to horses or cattle in the above doses.
In sheep the extreme tenderness of the throat is not so likely to occur, and for them the following prescription has been recommended: chlorate of potash, one half ounce; tincture of iron, six drams; water eight ounces; all to be mixed and well shaken, until the potash is dissolved. Dose of the mixture for an adult sheep one tablespoonful; for lambs, one half, and for yearlings one teaspoonful, three times a day.
Outside applications are always safe and generally very helpful. Inhalations of steam are to be freely used, always being careful not to confine the nose too closely, and not to commence the application so suddenly as to increase the cough. If pressure can be made over the larynx without increasing the distress in breathing, hot applications, as poultices of oil meal, or perhaps better, under the circumstances, common cotton waste, wrung out of hot water, should be applied over the throat and held in place either by a long bandage or a hood made for the purpose, as has been already described; these hot applications should be changed often enough to keep the parts soothed and warm. Men the inflammation has somewhat subsided, or sooner, if the poultices cannot be kept in place or at once, if there is any loss of power to swallow, a smart but not excessive blister should be rubbed onto the skin overlying the larynx; and extending upward, on each side, gradually coming to a point at within two or three inches of the base of the ears. The poultices may be used on all of the animals, excepting sheep, and the blister on both horses and cattle, when required. The bester should be made of one ounce of powdered Spanish fly, to four ounces of lard; well mixed together and allowed to harden a little after mixing, when it may be rubbed on, as directed. Rub lightly when a slight blistering action is required, and harder, with more of the ointment, if a considerable action seems necessary. In all animals, in sheep particularly, a good stimulating liniment may be used instead of the blister, as soap liniment, five ounces; water of ammonia, turpentine and oil of origanum, two drams of each; all to be mixed and well shaken up together. A little of the liniment may be rubbed onto the parts once daily, until an irritation and thickening of the skin begins to be shown; when its further use should be discontinued. %en suffocation is threatened, the windpipe must be opened below the throat, and a breathing tube inserted. This operation will require the services of a surgeon, but if it can be done quickly enough the life will be saved.
This term is used to describe a peculiar noise made by some horses during action.
Causes. It may be caused by a previous attack of sore throat, or a great many other things the descriptions of which are not given, as their existence can only be determined by a veterinarian.
Treatment. If recovery cannot be obtained by the application of a sharp fly blister, applied as directed for sore throat, with three or four weeks of absolute rest, following it, there only remains a remote possibility that it may be cured by surgical operation.
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