Chapter 34 - Veterinary Medicine
Introduction to Veterinary Medicine
The Pulse
Respiratory Organs
General Diseases Common to all Animals
General Plethora
Blood Poisoning
Expressions Peculiar to Animals
Rabies Hydrophobia
Pox Variola
Lump jaw
Horse Ail
Texan Cattle Fever
Foot and Mouth Disease
General Inflammation
Sore Throat
Lung Fever, Pneumonia
Catarrhal, Bronchial, or Lobular Pneumonia
Diseases of the Heart and Blood Vessels
Disorders of Organs of Digestion
Paralysis of the Muscles of Swallowing
Crib Biting and Wind Sucking in Horses
Disorders of the Stomach
Dieases of the Intestines
Inflammation of the Bowels
Diseases of Urinary Organs
Diseases of the Nervous System
Diseases of the Spinal Cord
Diseases of the Skin
Diseased Conditions of the Joints
Diseases of the Foot
Parasitic Diseases

34.31 Emphysema

Emphysema. This may affect one lung or both, or only a part of each. Causes. It consists in the giving way of the walls between a lesser or greater number of the air sacks, as a result of which, more or less of the lung becomes filled with "bladders of air" of various sizes, to such an extent as to prevent the normal amount of the inbreathed air from being expelled, as it should be, before the next fresh air is to be taken into the lungs. This unexpelled air, having already given up its oxygen to the blood, is of no further use and must in some way be gotten rid of, so far as possible, in order that sufficient new air to freshen the blood may have room to enter. Thus it is that the animal makes such a great effort to expel all the old air and in doing so uses all the possible muscles that he can to help; this full use of the "extraordinary muscles of expiration," as they are called, requires the double expiratory effort already described. Treatment. The disorder is incurable because of the presence of the organic charges in the lungs; the ruptured walls of the air sacks cannot be mended. As work or exercise demands a greater amount of fresh air for the lungs, with increased exertion to get rid of that which has become useless, an animal having the trouble should not be subjected to exercise, and horses or oxen having it to any great extent should not be worked, and cannot be to any profitable extent. Congestion of the Lungs. This term is used to describe a condition in which the lungs become suddenly and fully stuffed with blood. It is most commonly seen in horses, but may occur in the other animals. Causes. It is generally met with in badly conditioned, soft, and fleshy animals that have been put to unaccustomed, hard, continuous work, or to great sudden exertion. It may also occur from exhaustion, bad air and drainage in stables. Symptoms are in most instances of a very severe type, and especially characterized by great difficulty in breathing. The horse or ox stands with his limbs outstretched, and gasps for breath; all the available muscles of respiration are called into play; the nostrils open and close in quick succession; the flanks heave with a corresponding rapidity; the body surface is covered by cold sweats; the extremities are icy cold; the visible membranes are deep red, showing plainly the venous condition of the blood, as well as the slowness with which it flows through the vessels. The pulse at the jaw is very frequent, and may reach, in the horse and ox, one hundred to one hundred and forty beats a minute; it is feeble, indistinct, and becomes almost, if not entirely imperceptible, in severe cases, although the artery is large and seems full; and there is a tremor of the whole body. The action of the heart, which is irregular and tumultuous from the first, becomes still more embarrassed; the lungs still more engorged; and the breathing more disturbed, until at length death results because there is not sufficient arterial blood in circulation. In more favorable instances, however, the blood begins to slowly leave the lungs, and the heart to regain power until the circulation of blood through the lungs is again fully established, and the animal soon regains his normal condition. In some cases a little very dark colored blood drops or runs in a small, slow stream from one or both nostrils; this comes from the rupture of some small vessel in the overburdened lung; its presence, of itself, need cause no special alarm. Good hopes of recovery may be entertained so long as the pulse can be fairly well felt and counted. As relapse is apt to take place within a short time, the animal should on no account be exercised or even taken out of his stall for three or four days after he seems well. It not infrequently happen that what seems to be a slight attack of this disorder results in a case of pneumonia. Treatment. In all cases and at the very first, it must be so arranged that the animal can have a good supply of good fresh air, without draft. If he must be kept in an ordinary stall, he should be turned around so that his head will be kept in the open passage; and he should be tied in that position. If he is in a box stall he should be tied so that it will be impossible for him to get his bead into a comer or against the wall and so have a chance of breathing less pure air. The body surface should be well rubbed with straw or coarse cloths and kept warm by blankets. The legs are to be rubbed with stimulating liniments and closely bandaged with woolen flannel; and if they do not grow warmer, after a little time the rubbing and bandaging should be repeated. The writer once had the pleasure of seeing a very valuable trotting mare recover from a desperate attack of this kind, in which the warming up treatment consisted in placing all four feet, at one time, into four strong stable buckets which were three quarters full of hot water with a good quantity of ground mustard in it; under the middle of the body, between the fore and hind legs, was placed a large soaking tub half full of almost boiling water. She was then covered with three good sized "sweating" blankets, which were large enough to reach to the floor ' and over all of this was thrown a good sized waterproof covering. The water in both the pails and tub was changed often enough to keep up the desired heat. Of course for soaking the feet and legs the water must not be hotter than a man can bear to hold his hands in ' as long as he likes, without pain; for if it is warmer than this, the legs will be scalded and the hair permanently lost. Internally diffusible stimulants should be used; as whisky or brandy in moderate doses, which should be repeated every one or two hours for as long as may be necessary, the condition of the pulse and distress in breathing, being the guides. In place of the alcohol, and in bad cases, the stimulant ball had better be used, if any one is about who is able to give it properly; it must not be allowed to break in the mouth. The ball consist of two drams each of powdered carbonate of ammonia and gentian root, with five grains of red pepper; all to be mixed and made into a ball by the addition of enough molasses to give it the consistency of an ordinary pill; this mass can then be tightly rolled in thin tissue paper and given as directed. It should be repeated every one, two, or three hours, as necessary; in bad cases the second ball should be given in one hour after the first one has been taken. If, after a reasonable trial of this treatment, the circulation does not start up, bleeding may be resorted to, and from three to four quarts of blood may be taken from the jugular vein. The bleeding is not to be repeated; nor is it advisable to apply any stimulating liniment or other irritant to the walls of the chest, as they cannot possibly do any good, but on the contrary may do harm by so irritating the animal as to increase the number of respirations and the distress in breathing. During the convalescence, and to avoid a second attack or a subsequent pneumonia, the animal should be placed in a quiet place where he can have good air, comfortably clothed, and receive a nutritious diet. Water to drink may be allowed as fully as desired from the first onset of the trouble; indeed the more he will drink the better it will be for him.

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