Catarrhal, Bronchial, or Lobular Pneumonia.
Is always of a low type, generally secondary to some other debilitating disorder, and always having a strong tendency to cause degeneration of the parts of the lungs affected, which are, as has been said, larger or smaller scattered groups of the lobules.
Causes. Lobular pneumonia is always secondary to obstruction in the bronchial tubes, especially of the very small ones. It may be excited either by the gradual extension of inflammatory processesfrom the tubes to the air cells, or by the entrance of inflammatory
products from the tubes into the cells. Any bronchitis may predispose to it, but it generally follows in such animals as are debilitated from any cause, and is always the form shown when pneumonia follows any of the infective diseases. It may also follow wounds which penetrate the chest walls.
Symptoms. These are, at first, always more or less obscured by those of the malady which it accompanies, or by which it has been preceded. It rarely runs a regular course, that is, terminating after a definite period either in death or recovery, for it may be protracted for weeks.
After bronchitis or any debilitating fever has existed for a variable period and pneumonia sets in, the breathing becomes more or less hastened and labored; the temperature rises gradually to from one hundred and four to one hundred and five; there is very rarely any shivering fit. After twenty-four hours the pulse becomes small, compressible, and feeble. The trouble is somewhat indicated by the fact that, when the symptoms already described are present, the fever usually shows well marked ups and downs, at irregular intervals. The intensity of the symptoms depend upon the amount of lung involved. When recovery occurs, the change toward health is very slow; the pulse rate, temperature, and difficulty in breathing diminish almost imperceptibly and the convalescence is long. When the disease is to end fatally, the temperature rises, the visible membranes are of a bluish deep red color, and the breathing movements hurried and irregular.
Treatment. The general rule laid down for the nursing and care of the acute disorder will apply here; but it is to be remembered that as this is a secondary malady, the very fact of its presence indicates that the animal is in an enfeebled condition and, therefore, that the administration of all depressing agents, such as nitrate of potash, aconite, etc., must be avoided. The chest walls and the body should be carefully covered, as directed, and the legs bandaged. Inhalations of steam made from water, into which a moderate amount of common vinegar has been put, will be very useful if the case is one following bronchitis. The sides should not have any irritant applied to them, not even a stimulating liniment. Stimulants, as sweet spirits of niter, Irish whiskey or brandy, with quinine, should be given from the first, three or four times daily, and persisted in. Quinine given in large doses through the rise of the fever and reduced somewhat during the return to health, is a most serviceable drug in these cases. The quantity and number of doses to be given each day must be governed by the individual case; it may be added to until the pulse is increased in force and the respiration a little less frequent. When this point has been reached, the dose may be held where it is, or reduced little by little, as the pulse, etc., show that it is time to do so.
This treatment will be best for all animals, excepting that the full fleeced sheep will need no extra covering over the sides. (See dose table.)
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