All of the animals may be more or less infested by vermin, some of which live upon the skin while others infest the stomach and intestines. These are respectively known as external and internal parasites
Mew found on Horses, Cattle, and Dogs.
Lice found on Horses, Cattle, Sheep, and Dogs.
licks found on Horses, Cattle, Sheep, and Dogs.
Grubs found on Horses and Cattle.
Mange found on Horses and Dogs.
Scab in Sheep.
The Fly. Maggots in Sheep.
Fleas, This pest is so well known that it will need no description as to general appearance; there are several varieties of them, all of which have much the same characteristics.
Dog, cat, and man fleas, when very abundant, will attack horses and cattle, causing much itching and small swellings of the skin; they my be discovered by careful examination.
Treatment. In horses and cattle: Sponge the whole skin with a mixture of one part of pure carbolic acid to fifty parts of water.
In. dog, the Persian insect powder should be thoroughly rubbed into the hair, and allowed to remain upon the animal for from twenty minute to half an hour, during which time he must be kept from lapping himself. This is to be immediately followed by a good thorough bath of soap and warm water.
Lice, as found upon animals, are of two varieties. One is furnished with an apparatus for piercing the skin and sucking the blood, upon which he lives; the other has strong jaws and simply bites the skin, feeding upon its insensitive outer covering and the hair. Both of these are found upon horses, cattle, and dogs; the last alone, upon sheep. In size lice are from about one sixteenth to one eighth of an inch long, roundish and flattish in shape and of a dirty white color. It is not possible to distinguish the various extremities excepting by the use of a moderately strong magnifying glass, nor is it necessary to do so for the purpose of getting rid of them.
Symptoms. In horses and cattle, loss of flesh and hair, together with the itching condition shown, should lead to a suspicion of their presence, which a close examination will confirm, if lice are present.
In Sheep, the wool becomes dry, the body itches and is rubbed against any convenient object; the wool is torn out, he nibbles at his flanks, and scratches at his elbows with the hind feet. Search should be made for the parasite on the inner parts of the thigh and on the sides of the neck. In dogs, there is considerable irritation of the skin, and restlessness. When this is due to the presence of lice, a careful examination of the head, neck, flanks, and root of tail should not fail to find them.
Treatment. Lice can be killed in horses, cattle, and dogs, by rubbing the animal with the sulphur lotion. (See prescriptions.) The application should be repeated within a week to ten days in order that all lice which have been hatched ' since the first treatment, from the remaining nits, which cannot be safely destroyed, may be killed. Sheep must be thoroughly dipped in a sulphur bath.
Ticks. Wood ticks attack horses, cattle, sheep, and dogs, and are commonly seen in various, more or less uncultivated places; they live upon bushes and from them are gathered as the animal passes through the brush. When the tick has gained lodgment he commences to bore through the skin; this done, he fills himself with blood and drops to the ground.
Symptoms. Great irritation, uneasiness with scratching or rubbing. Examination will easily reveal the presence of the parasite, if he is there. If the tick is pulled out before he is full of blood and ready to come, the head and a part of the body will be left in the ,skin, causing a local point of irritation, with a small sore.
Treatment. Either cover the tick with some heavy oil or touch him lightly with a piece' of hot iron wire, when he will voluntarily quit his hold. Flocks of sheep that have become infected must be dipped in any good "sheep dip," and the best time to do it is immediately after shearing. Dipping should be repeated in three or four weeks,
Grubs are found in the skins of horses and cattle. They come as a result of the attack of a large "fly" which, while resting on the
animal, deposits its egg into or onto the skin. This egg passes the winter in the hide of the animal, in a little round sack which is furnished with an external opening, through which he escapes when his full growth is reached late in the spring, falls to the ground and develops into a fly.
Symptoms. There will be one or many small, hard bunches upon various parts of the skin, along each side of the backbone particularly, which, upon being closely examined, _will be found to have a small hole in its top.
Treatment. The grubs should be pressed out of the openings during the late winter and destroyed.
Maggots on the Skin are found on horses, cattle, and sheep.
Several flies, the bluebottle, the screw worm, the meat fly and the. flesh fly, attack sores and wet, filthy places, upon the skins of animals, leaving a deposit of their eggs which hatch and develop into maggots that may be the source of considerable trouble unless they are removed.
Treatment. Clip off the hair or the wool in sheep from wet, filthy places, pick out the maggots carefully and apply to the skin a mixture of one ounce of oil of tar to six ounces of cotton seed oil, twice daily, for as long as necessary. Or, clean the wound carefully with, first, castile soap and warm water, afterwards with a mixture of one part of carbolic acid to fifty parts of water. If the maggots are in the frog of the foot of the horse; or between the claws of the feet in cattle and sheep, clean the parts out carefully, using no water or soap, and apply dry calomel to the sores.
Flies bite horses and cattle, and suck their blood, causing great annoyance and sometimes the death of the horse.
Treatment. The usual means of reducing the annoyance and ill effects to horses should always be undertaken; fly nets, dark stables from which the manure is kept removed, etc. Cattle may have Persian insect powder well rubbed into the hair, or be bathed with a decoction of walnut, elder leaves, or tobacco. The poisoned bites may be treated with a mixture of one part of carbolic acid to twenty parts of cotton wed oil, applied twice daily; or a mixture of one dram of embolic acid, one quarter ounce of saleratus, to one quart of water, may be used instead. This last mixture may also be used to relieve the pain caused by the stings of bees, hornets, and wasps.
Scab In Sheep. The parasites causing this well known disorder, which largely destroys the fleece and too often the life of the animal, is to a intents and purposes a form of louse, although he is not scientifically described as such. There are four varieties: one which burrows in the skin; another that simply bites and holds on, the common scab through which the greatest losses come; a third, the cause of foot scab; and a fourth, the head scab, the smallest of all and scarcely to be seen by the naked eye.
Causes. The passing of the insect from one animal to another, which may take place by the aid of such inanimate objects as fences, buildings, railroad cars, etc. But as the insect himself cannot live for any great length of time away from the warm body of the sheep, and inasmuch as the eggs are deposited in collections of manure and from there picked up by the wool of animals lying upon them, the greatest source of its spread is from pastures upon which flocks have been grazing, as well as in sheds and railroad cars from which the manure has not been properly removed.
Symptoms. When first attacked by scab a sheep will begin scratching and rubbing himself; he will bite at his wool, pulling it out more or less with his mouth, which gives the fleece a moth eaten appearance. As he becomes more affected he is constantly uneasy, scratching, pulling at his wool, etc. If such an animal is driven for any distance all the symptoms become aggravated.
Treatment. The sheep must be "dipped," a process so well and widely known that a description of it is not necessary here. A number of good "dips," are on sale and can be more easily obtained than if made at home. It will be better to use a mixture containing sulphur and no arsenic. If a prepared "dip" is used that contains no sulphur, it will be better to add sixteen and one half pounds of sifted flowers of sulphur to every one hundred gallons of water used.
Dip the entire flock immediately after shearing, and repeat the process in ten days. Keep each sheep in the bath for two minutes, exactly, and dip the head once, at least. Be careful with the rams, as they do not submit to the process so quietly as the ewes. Again, do not use dips containing poisons.
Mange. Affects dogs and horses.
Causes. Mange depends upon the presence of a minute parasite which lives in the skin, underneath its outer covering, and is conveyed from animal to animal, directly or otherwise.
Symptoms. The animal begins to scratch and rub; there first appears upon the surface of the skin a number of small whitish yellow pustules, which are soon followed by sores, scabs, abrasions when the skin is scratched, bitten, or rubbed by the animal; and a thickened skin after the disorder has been present for some time. True mange is not such a commonly seen disorder as is thought, and inasmuch as the symptoms, when it is present, are precisely those of some of the forms of eczema, which are frequently seen, it is not possible to separate
one from the other, unless, upon a microscopic examination, properly made by one who is expert in the matter, the parasite, which is not visible to the naked eye, is found. .
Treatment. Clip the hair on horses over the affected parts. Soften the skin by bathing it for fifteen minutes at a time with hot water, rub it dry and apply the ointment indicated below, once a day, until the skin becomes smooth. In dogs shave the hair from the entire skin. Soak the animal in a hot water bath for fifteen minutes, dry him as Boon as possible, and immediately apply the following ointment, which should be well rubbed in, over the entire surface.
Take of beta naphthol, two drams; flowers of sulphur, four drams; balsam of Peru and vaseline, of each, two ounces; rub well together and apply once a day as directed above.
Tapeworms found in Horses, Cattle, Sheep, and Dogs.
Round worms found in Horses, Cattle, Sheep, and Dogs.
Threadworms found in Horses, Cattle, Sheep, and Dogs.
Bots found in Horses.
Gadfly found in Sheep.
Tapeworms. There are a great variety of these, one or the other or several of which are found in all of the animals, but in dogs and sheep particularly. In sheep they produce results that are individual to that animal, as will be pointed out.
. Round Worms are also in great variety of "breeds" and sizes in the different animals, from the large ones measuring some six or eight inches long in horses, with a considerable diameter at their largest parts, to the small threadworms found in the breathing tubes of calves and lambs; and the so called " pinworm" found in the rectum of horses and dogs.
Symptoms. With some few exceptions, which will be pointed out, intestinal worms produce no symptoms that are distinctive of their presence; all that are generally shown indicating no more than a persistent indigestion, which refuses to yield to the ordinary treatment for that disorder. The animal may show an occasional attack of colic, diarrhea, and have a persistent dry cough. Dogs frequently have repeated attacks of convulsions (fits), or even muscular twitchings, as in St. Vitus's dance. All of the animals are dull, have fickle or depraved appetites, considerable thirst, and lose flesh rapidly.
Treatment. In horses and cattle give sixteen powders, each of which contains two drams each of powdered gentian root and powdered sulphate of iron, well mixed together. One powder should be given night and morning in dampened grain feed, until all have been taken. The last powder is to be given in a good sized warm bran mash; two hours afterward give a good dose of physic, preferably the aloes ball for horses (see prescription); and the horse should not be used until the effects of the cathartic have passed away, something like three days; he may be used during the administration of the powders. Epsom salts will be the best cathartic for cattle.
In Sheep the proper dose will be: Kamala, three drams; gruel made from linseed, six ounces.
In Dogs this prescription may be used for an animal as large as a collie: Kamala, three drams, mixed with one ounce of warmed milk. The dog should not be fed for twelve hours before getting the medicine, which will have to be turned down his throat. The evening before the animal is to receive the worm medicine in the morning he should be given three tablespoonfuls of castor oil.
These doses will be sufficient for either tape or round worms.
Gid or Turn Sick in Sheep. This term is used to describe a condition arising from the presence, in the brain, of the larva (early immature forms) of one of the tapeworms.
Causes. The eggs of the worm are distributed over the pastures by dogs, usually, and the disorder is more particularly seen among sheep when dogs are used in connection with their care. The eggs of the tapeworm, coming from the dog, are gathered with the grass by the sheep, pass into their stomachs, hatch there, and at once bore through the walls of that organ, getting into the circulating blood. The flowing blood then carries them to all parts of the body; those reaching the brain gain a lodgment, become encysted and continue to grow until they reach to about the size of a bean.
Symptoms. When the worm has reached its size, as developed in the brain, which will be in from two to three months after it has been taken into the stomach, the sheep is first noticed to be dun, grazes indifferently, does not chew the cud well, staggers as it walks, finally falling down, as if from dizziness. Or, at other times, while grazing, the animal suddenly jumps and runs as fast as he can, for some little distance. If the sheep survives so far, he stops eating, begins to lose flesh and grow weak rapidly, has an anxious look, cannot see, and moves about in circles, with the head hanging. If the trouble is confined to one side the circle is always in the same way; if on both sides, first one way and then the other, until he dies, either from interference with some function of the brain, or from exhaustion.
Treatment. The only relief to be had is through a surgical operation, which includes the removal of a portion of the skull and the direct withdrawal of the worm. The operation must be done by one who is expert in it.
It will be better to dress the animal for mutton as soon as the first
symptoms are shown.
Preventive treatment will be the best of all and may easily be accomplished by giving an occasional dose of worm medicine to the dogs.
Hoose Husk Parasitic Bronchitis. This malady seriously affects calves and lambs; it also exists, but with far less following damage, among cattle and sheep.
Causes. Hoose is due to the presence of a threadworm, from one, to two and one half inches long, in the breathing (bronchial) tubes. They appear to gain entrance to the stomach through the water supply, or from grasses grown upon low lying land, where there is insufficient drainage. It is said that they pierce the walls of the stomach and intestines, gain entrance to the circulation and find final lodgment in the bronchial tubes. This seems to be impossible, but it is to be considered that the same worms are occasionally found in the heart and blood vessels; which shows that in some way they are present in the circulating blood stream, as well as in the intestines.
Symptoms The presence of the parasite in the lung causes violent coughing, difficulty in breathing, anemia, shown by a white, waxy appearance of the membranes; the skin grows dry, and in lambs the wool has a tendency to fall out; the animal loses strength and dies in from one to four months, depending upon its strength and the number of worms present. Occasionally one or two of the parasites may be found in the matters that are coughed up or sneezed out.
If the worms are in the digestive organs as well as the lungs there will be additional symptoms of indigestion, diarrhea, colicky pains, considerable thirst, etc.
Treatment. As a preventive measure move the animals to higher pasture as soon as the condition is recognized; or, better, do not turn them into low, wet pastures at all. Medical treatment consists in inhalation of the gas of burning sulphur or the injection of the following mixture into the windpipe: Iodine, one half dram; iodide of potash, two and one half drams; boiled water, which has been allowed to cool, three ounces; turpentine, two ounces; olive oil, six ounces; mix the turpentine and oil together, then add the mixture of iodine and water to it. When it is to be used, shake the bottle well, take from one to two drams of the mixture into a large hypodermic syringe, and, pushing the sharp, hollow needle of the instrument through the skin and wall of the windpipe, slowly inject the mixture. Repeat the process every two or three days for as long as is necessary. Both of these methods will be safer if done by one who is expert in the matter.
Bots In Horses. These parasites come from the gadfly of the horse, which, generally while the animal is at pasture, deposits and glues a small yellow egg on the hair covering various parts of the body, mostly upon parts that are within reach of the mouth. Men, in licking itself, the tongue of the horse reaches any of the eggs, after they are three weeks old, its warmth and moisture hatches them, when, as maggots, they enter the mouth and are swallowed into the stomach, to the walls of which they fasten themselves by means of a pair of hooks that are near their heads, and so remain until their full growth is attained; they then loosen their hold and, passing through the bowels, are dropped onto the ground with the manure, having spent about eight months in the horse. When they reach the ground they bury themselves beneath its surface and remain there, as a chrysalis, for six or seven weeks, when they come out as a fully formed gadfly ready, in their turn, to deposit the eggs upon other horses. While it is sometimes true that, if the bots are in large numbers, they occasionally cause illness in the horse, there are no definite symptoms pointing to their presence; nor is there any special treatment that will dislodge or kill them. Sickness of horses, from bots, is of very, very rare occurrence, notwithstanding the wide spread opinion to the contrary.
Parasitic Nasal Catarrh of Sheep. This disorder results from the attack of another gadfly, resembling an overgrown horsefly, which deposits its maggot like larva up in the nostrils of the animal, where they remain until they are about three quarters of an inch long, when they drop to the ground, bore into the earth and remain there, in chrysalis form, for one or two months, when they emerge as the fully formed fly.
Symptoms. The sheep, on becoming aware of the presence of a fly, shakes his head, stamps with the front feet, runs, with his nose close to the ground, into the middle of the flock. The whole flock become alarmed, put their noses near to the ground and huddle together as closely as possible.
The young maggots, deposited on the membrane lining the nostril, at once commence to crawl higher up in those cavities, often reaching other cavities in the head; these movements cause considerable irritation in the sheep, evidenced by shaking the head and sneezing. As the maggots grow in size the sheep show all the symptoms of a severe nasal catarrh, as already described. The duration of the attack may be from sixty days to ten months, depending upon the length of time during which the maggots remain in the cavities.
Treatment. The practical remedy is prevention. This may be easily accomplished in small flocks by smearing the noses of all of the sheep, by means of a brush, with a mixture of equal quantities of tar and grease for at least once a week during the entire fly season. Large flocks may be herded on dusty ground, during that part of the day in which the flies are most active.
An ingenious method of prevention has been proposed as follows.
"Take a square log and bore holes in it with a large auger; in these place salt, and dress the edges of the holes with tar. Sheep will then apply tar to their noses every time they eat the salt." This method might well repay trial, in large flocks.
Curative treatment is by surgical operation only and must be done by an expert. It is not practicable excepting in the case of an occasional animal that has an especial value.
MANY forms of malignant diseases among hogs are popularly designated cholera, and the use of this ill chosen term has led to a wide misunderstanding of the nature of these diseases, and to many mistakes in treatment, as well as in the use of measures of prevention.
The malignant character of these kindred forms of diseases, and the heavy loss occasioned by their wide spread ravages, make a knowledge of the preventative measures and methods of treatment a matter of great importance to the farmer and breeder.
The germ which Causes Hog Cholera.
The germ, or microbe, which causes Hog Cholera is present in the blood of sick hogs and also in the excretions and urine. The disease can be produced by inoculating well hogs with the blood or urine from sick hogs. The germ which is in this blood and urine is s small that it cannot be seen with the strongest microscope. It has
never been cultivated in laboratories, and we know of it only by the effects which it produces. The germ of Hog Cholera is therefore classed with the ,invisible micro-organisms. "
The disease can be started in a herd only by introducing the “germ " which causes it. Yet there are many factors which will make a herd more susceptible to the disease, such as improper feeding and unsanitary condition of hog lots, damp or cold sleeping places and dirty feeding troughs.
11 Cholera sick Hogs may get onto a farm (1) by escaping from a neighboring herd, (2) by the purchase of new stock which may show no symptoms of sickness until some days after purchase, (3) by/'returning show hogs to the herd after visits to fairs or stock shows, (4) by purchase of hogs which have apparently recovered from hog cholera. The risk incurred by purchase of new hogs or the return of hogs which have been shown at fairs is chiefly due to the fact that such hogs are generally transported by rail, unloaded in public stock yards, or driven along public roads. Sick hogs are frequently shipped by rail, and the roads over which they are driven, the stock yards, and the railroad cars thus become contaminated with the germ of Hog Cholera. When healthy hogs are placed in such cars or yards or are driven along public roads they almost always have the opportunity to contract the disease, but the interval between shipment and delivery to the purchaser is so short that the symptoms do not appear until a week or more after delivery, when it is usually too late to prevent the spread of disease to hogs already on the farm. The only safe plan in such cases is to place all new arrivals in lots entirely separated from those occupied by the main herd, and to keep them isolated until all danger of their developing Hog Cholera has passed.
The germ of the disease may be transported in a minute particle of dirt on the feet of attendants who have previously visited farms where Hog Cholera exists. It may also be carried in this way by dogs, and by crows and other birds. The disease may be carried
downstream from herds which are affected above. It is therefore well to avoid placing hogs so that they will have access to streams which pass through other farms. It is quite possible for infection to be introduced into a farm by litter dropped from cars in transit, especially if hogs on the farm have access to the tracks.
After Hog Cholera has visited a farm, the lots, hog houses, feeding troughs, and implements used for cleaning have naturally become contaminated with
the germs of the disease; and if new stock is placed in such yards soon after these were occupied by sick hogs the new hogs are very likely to contract the disease. Before restocking, the premises should be cleaned and thoroughly disinfected. It is a very difficult matter to be sure that Hog Cholera is actually present, for the outward symptoms are not characteristic, but only such as might be expected in any actual disease. The same may be said of some of the changes which take place in the internal organ. It is thereforenecessary to consider all the features of the disease before making a positive decision concerning the presence of Hog Cholera in a herd
The important features of Hog Cholera are:
Contagiousness; sluggishness; weakness; loss of appetite; high fever; Mammation of the eyes with gumming of the lids, and diarrhea; red or purplish blotches on the skin, especially over the surface of the abdomen, inside of the legs, and around the ears and neck.
Summary of Post mortem Appearances.
Care should be exercised in examining carcasses of sick hogs, as a out or scratch on the hand might serve as a point for inoculation; and their diseases are highly dangerous to man.
The important lesions found after death from Hog Cholera are as follows:
Reddening of the skin; bloody spots on the lungs or surface of the heart; in the kidneys; on the outer surface and inner lining of the intestines and the stomach. Reddening of the lymphatic glands; enlargement of the spleen; ulceration of the inner lining of the large intestines.
In the lingering of chronic cases of Hog Cholera it is usual to find the intestinal button like ulcers (see illustration).
Any one or all of the lesions may be found in a hog which has died from Hog Cholera. It is rare to find all in any individual case.
When a hog once contracts , Cholera " the chances are that the hog will die in a few days. Therefore it is necessary to quarantine the sick hog from the herd and improve if possible the sanitary condition of the herd, and give the herd the following preventative medicine
Wood charcoal . . . . . . . . . . 1
Sulphur . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Sodium chloride . . . . . . . . . . 2
Sodium bicarbonate . . . . . . . . . 2
Sodium hyposulphite . . . . . . . . 2
Sodium sulphate . . . . . . . . . . 1
Antimony sulphid (black antimony) . . . 1
This powder is mixed with the feed in the proportion of a large tablespoonful to each two hundred pounds weight of hogs to be treated, and should not be given oftener than once a day.
There are so many complications arising in Hog Cholera that this medicine cannot wholly be relied upon to prevent the Disease, except in so far as it improves the general health of the hogs.
The U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Animal Industry, Washington, D. C., have produced a , Serum " that can be relied upon to immunize susceptible hogs under practical farm conditions, and which can be obtained by farmers from that Department upon written application.
Any statements made on this site have not been evaluated by the FDA
and are not intended to diagnose, treat or cure any disease or condition.
Always consult your professional health care provider.
copyright 2005, J. Crow Company, New Ipswich NH 03071