Chapter 35 - Veterinary Appendix
Methods of Giving Medicines to Animals
Medicines and their Doses

35.3 Prescriptions

PRESCRIPTIONS. Cathartics Horses. Powdered Barbados Aloes 1 oz. Powdered Ginger Root 1/2 dr. Vaseline q. s. Enough of the vaseline should be used to make the whole mass of the consistency of rather hard putty; all is then to be rolled up in a piece of brown tissue paper, into the form of a shotgun cartridge, and given, as directed, all at one dose. Do not repeat; it should show its effects in about twenty four hours. The dose may he strengthened by adding from ½-1 dr. of calomel. If the ball cannot be given take: (1) Powdered Barbados Aloes 1 oz. Water 1/2- pt. Mix, and float the aloes down, as a drench. Calomel may be added to this dose, as above. (2) Epsom Salts ¾- lb. Tincture of Ginger 2 dr. Warm Water 1 pt. Dissolve the salts in the water, add the ginger, and give all at one dose, as a drench. (3) Linseed Oil 1 pt. Saleratus 1 oz. Shake up the saleratus with the oil and give as a drench. Cattle. (4) Epsom Salts 1-2 -lb. Molasses 2 oz. Powdered Ginger 1 tablespoonful. Warm Water 3 pts. Dissolve the salts in the water, add the other two articles, and stir the mixture well together; give all at a dose, as a drench. The large quantity of water is necessary for this dose in cattle. It may be repeated in twenty four hours, if necessary. In a very obstinate case the first dose may have five or six drops of croton oil added to it. The oil should not be repeated. (5) Raw Linseed Oil 1-2 pt. Saleratus 2 oz. Shake well together and give in one dose, as a drench. Sheep. (6) Epsom Salts 6 dr. Molasses 1. oz. Powdered Ginger 2 teaspoonfuls Warm Water 1 pt. Mix and give as for cattle. (7) Linseed Oil 6-10 oz. Saleratus 1 teaspoonful. Mix and give as for cattle. (8) Powdered Barbados Aloes ½-oz. Tincture of Ginger 1 dr. Linseed Oil 6 oz. Shake all together and give as a drench. Lambs. (9) Warm Lard 3-4 tablespoonful Dogs. (10) Castor oil 1 oz. Syrup of Buckthorn loz. Syrup of Poppies 2 dr. Mix and give all at a dose, to a medium sized dog. The dose may be increased for larger, or decreased for very small dogs. (11) Castor Oil Olive Oil, equal portions ½-oz. This mixture may be used for dogs of the size of a fox terrier; and is best for all delicate animals. For toy dogs it should be lessened, a little. Compound Cathartic Pills contain, to one pill (12) Extract of Colombo, compound 1 ¼-gr. Extract of Jalap ½-gr. Calomel 1gr. Gamboge ¼-gr. These pills may be got from any druggist. The dose is from one half of one pill for small, to two or three pills for large, dogs. Compound Cascara Tablets contain to one tablet. (13) Extract of Cascara 2 g. Extract of Belladonna 1/16-gr. Podophylin ¼-gr. The tablets may be procured from the druggist. The dose is from one half to one or two tablets, given once a day, at night. They are very useful in cases of slow digestion with persistent constipation. Laxatives. Any of these cathartic doses, excepting those containing aloes and croton oil, may be so lessened in quantity as to be used as a laxative; which may be repeated once each day for as long as is necessary. They should generally be reduced to about one quarter of their original strength. Horse. Tonics. (14) Powdered Sulphate of Iron Powdered Gentian Root, equal parts . 3 oz. Mix well together and divide into twelve powders. A powder to be given night and morning in dampened grain feed. A good general tonic. To be used when membranes are pale. or, Powdered Golden Seal 2 oz. Powdered Nux Vomica 1 oz. Powdered Sulphate of Iron 1 oz. Bicarbonate of Soda 2 oz. This powder must be well mixed; it is then to be divided into eight separate powders, one of which should be given night and morning in dampened grain feed. The best all round tonic,, especially following chronic indigestion, hide bound, loss of flesh, and in heaves. Or, Powdered Gentian Root 4 oz. Powdered Sulphate of Iron 2 oz. Powdered Ginger Root 1 oz. Powdered Nux Vomica 1 oz. This powder must be well mixed, and divided into eight equal parts, one of which is to be given night and morning, in the usual way. It is to be used when a slight stimulating effect is desired, as when the appetite is poor. All tonic powders may be given in the form of a ball, by mixing them with a sufficient quantity of molasses, and wrapping them in paper; or by simply floating them in one half pint of water and giving, as a drench, just after the animal has finished eating, if they are refused when mixed with the grain, CONDITION POWDER Powdered Bayberry Bark Powdered Golden Seal Powdered Bloodroot Powdered Salt, of each 2 lbs. Powdered Charcoal Powdered Black Antimony Powdered Ginger Root Powdered Anise-seed, of each I lb. . All to be thoroughly mixed. Dose, tablespoonful, twice daily. This will be found to be a good mild tonic to be used when the animals are in no more than an unthrifty condition. FLUID TONIC (17) Strychnine 8 grs. Tincture of Gentian Root Water, equal parts 8 oz. Mix and shake until strychnine is dissolved. Dose, one ounce, three times daily. Cattle. The same tonics in the same doses as prescribed for horses, may be given to cattle. Sheep. (18) Tincture of Chloride of Iron 2 dr. Tincture of Gentian Root Tincture of Ginger Root, of each 4 dr. Water 1 pt. Mix and give two tablespoonfuls three times daily, if anemic. (19) Tincture of Chloride of Iron 4 oz. Ten to twenty drops may be given three times daily on a little grain feed. (20) Powdered Nux Vomica 2 dr. Powdered Bicarbonate of Soda 2 dr. Powdered Golden Seal Powdered Ginger Root Powdered Gentian Root, equal quantities 6 dr. Mix thoroughly; divide into twelve powders, and give one powder three times daily in a little water, as a drench. This mixture is to be used when the sheep continues to be dull, as ff the nerves needed strengthening. CONDITION POWDERS FOR SHEEP (21) Sulphate of Iron 1 oz. Powdered Gentian Root 4 oz. Powdered Willow Charcoal 4 oz. Powdered Fenugreek 1 oz. Powdered Nitrate of Potash 4 dr. Linseed Meal 4 oz. Mix all well together. Give one tablespoonful in feed once or twice daily. TONIC FOR ANEMIA (22) Sulphate of Iron 2 oz. Common Salt 4 oz. Gentian Root, powdered 4 oz. Licorice Root, powdered 8 oz. Mix thoroughly and give one tablespoonful twice a day in grain feed, dampened. Dogs. (23). Pill of Citrate of Iron and Quinine, 1 grain each. Give a pill three times daily, for a small dog; double as much for a collie, pointer, or setter. A good’ general tonic; useful after distemper. (24) Bland's Pills. Give a pill morning and night to a medium sized dog; one half one to small animals. A good general tonic; useful when the dog is not eating well or has pallidity of the membranes. (25) Tincture of the Chloride of Iron, 4 oz. For a medium sized dog give eight drops, three times daily. It is a good appetizer and helps to make red blood. It, however, blackens the teeth, temporarily; and when it is being taken a small dose of oil will probably have to be given occasionally. Fever Mixtures* Horses. (26) Sweet Spirits of Niter 7 oz. Fluid Extract of Belladonna 1 oz. Sulphate of Quinine 40 grs. Dilute Sulphuric Acid 40 m. Mix all in a bottle and shake until the quinine is dissolved. The dose will be two ounces of the mixture’ given in a tumblerful of cold water, three or four times daily. Cattle. The same as for horses. Sheep. (27) Sulphate of Quinine 40 gr. Tinct. of Citrate of Iron 4 dr. Whiskey 7 1/2- oz. Mix well together. Shake the bottle and give two tablespoonfuls at a dose, in half pint of molasses and water, each four hours, to an adult. sheep less in proportion to age and size. To be used in Pneumonia. (28) Fluid Extract of Belladonna 2 dr. Sweet Spirits of Niter 2 oz. Muriate of Ammonia 4 dr. Water 6 oz. Mix well together and give one tablespoonful at a dose 'in one third pint of molasses and water, every two hours 47 Dogs. (29) Calomel 4 gr. Sub nitrate of Bismuth 72 gr. Phenacetine 48 gr. Mix well together and divide into twenty four powders, of which one may be given to a fox terrier as often as each two hours, for not exceeding two days, when the powder, if there is further need, may be given three times daily. Larger dogs will require double the dose or more. To be given dry on the tongue. (30) Tincture Aconite Root 20 m. Sweet Spirits of Niter 6 dr. Bromide of Potash 4 dr. Liquid of the Acetate Ammonia 4 oz. Mix well together. Give a teaspoonful every two hours, in a little cold water. Electuaries Medicines in this form are to be used when, from soreness of the' throat or otherwise, the animal is unable to swallow. The method of administration is by pressing the quantity onto the outside of one of the back teeth,, from which it is slowly dissolved. (31) Extract of Belladonna 1 oz. Chlorate of Potash 2 oz. Licorice, not powdered 5 oz. Simple syrup, enough to make proper consistency. Mix well together. Use one half ounce of the mass,, each two hours, for a horse, same for cattle, and less for sheep and dogs. Liniments Soap Liniment Opodeldoc. (32) Castile Soap in fine Shavings 3 oz. Powdered Gum Camphor 1 oz. Oil of Rosemary 2 dr. Oil of Thyme 1 dr. Spirits of Wine 1 pt. Dissolve the soap and camphor in the spirits of wine and add the oils. This mixture can be obtained much more easily from the druggist. It forms the basis of many other liniments. If rubbed onto the skin its action is mildly stimulating. Stimulating. (33) Soap Liniment 5 oz Turpentine Strong Ammonia Oil of Origanum, equal parts 2 dr. Shake well together in a bottle. This is the best all round stimulating liniment, and can be used upon all the animals. Camphorated Oil. (34) Camphor 1 oz. Sweet oil 3 oz. Dissolve the camphor in alcohol and add the oil. It is better to obtain this ready made from the druggist. Aconite Liniment. (35) Tincture of Aconite Root 2 oz. Sweet Oil 4 oz. Creosote 1 oz. Mix, and shake bottle. This is one of the good liniments for application to a bruise, when the skin is not broken, or to a sprain of any kind. It removes and decreases inflammation, irritation, and pain. Do not use on dogs. Creosote Liniment. (36) Creosote 1 oz. Turpentine 1 oz. Olive or Sweet Oil 2 oz. Mix, and shake bottle. This gives relief from pain and is to be used for rubbing upon stiff joints. Do not use on dogs. For Rheumatism. (37) Tincture of Aconite Root Oil of Wintergreen Chloroform, equal parts 1 oz. Soap Liniment 5 oz. Mix, and rub well onto the parts, once or twice daily. Do not use on dogs. Lotions. Zinc and Lead. (38) Sulphate of Zinc Acetate of Lead, equal parts 6 dr. Water I qt. Put the powder into the water and shake the bottle until all lumps are dissolved. Very useful in galls and sores on the skin, in scratches, and for cooling out swollen legs, etc. The bottle must be well shaken frequently while this lotion is being used; and it is better sopped than rubbed on. It should not be used on dogs. Sulphur Lotion. (39) Sulphurette of Potash (liver of sulphur) lb. Water 4 qts. ground the sulphur into small pieces; put it into the water; let it stand, with frequent shaking, for three days, then carefully turf, off the clear liquid. The lotion should be of a sherry color. It will not be of that color unless the sulphur used is fresh and good; there is often some little trouble about getting it so. It will kill lice and cure many disorders of the skin in all animals. For Scratches. (40) Impure Carbonate of Zinc 2 oz. Powdered Alum 1 oz. Precipitated Chalk 10 oz. Creosote 11 oz. 2 Beeswax 1 1 oz. 2 Lard 15 oz. The lard and wax are to be melted together and the powders are then to be stirred into it. All must be will mixed and should be stirred, while cooling, often enough to keep it so. Besides being useful in scratches it also answers a good purpose when any ointment of zinc is required; and in certain forms of eczema, except in dogs. It should be applied twice daily. Sulphur Ointment. (41) Flowers of Sulphur 2 oz. Carbonate of Potash 1 oz. Lard 8 oz. Mix well together. Is useful in many skin diseases. For Itching Skins. (42) Thymol 15 gr. Alcohol 21 dr. Glycerine 5 dr. Water enough to make 1 pint. Mix and rub well onto the parts twice daily. Loss of Appetite in Horses and Cattle. (43) Fluid Extract of Red Pepper 2 dr. Fluid Extract of Golden Seal 3 oz. Fluid Extract of Nux Vomica 3 oz. Mix. Dose, two teaspoonfuls on tongue three times a day. Hoot Ointment. (44) Mutton Tallow 2 oz. Resin 2 oz. Barbados Tar 2 oz. Yellow Wax 1 oz. Castor Oil 1 oz. Melt all together over a slow fire. If it is desired to have it rather soft, when, the mixture is entirely melted stir in eight ounces of raw linseed oil. This mixture, if used on the hoofs daily, will keep them in good growing condition and make them look well. Solution of Argyrot for Inflamed Eyelids. (45) Argyrol 24 m. Water 1 oz. Mix. Use two drops three times daily. Solution of Lysol. (46) Lysol 50 m. Water 8 oz. 3 fix. Use freely in dressing sores, wounds, etc. Hair Grower. (47) Balsam of Peru 4 dr. Tincture Spanish Fly 4 dr. Castor Oil I oz. Lard I oz. Melt the lard, add the oil and other ingredients. It will cool into a soft ointment, which may easily be well rubbed onto the parts, once a day. Vomiting Powders for Dogs. (48) Sub nitrate of Bismuth 30 gr. Oxalate of Cerium 30 gr. Mix well together and divide into ten powders. Give a powder each two to four hours as required. Alterative Powder. (49) Flowers of Sulphur 41 oz. Saltpeter, powdered 41 oz. Black Amtimony 12 dr. Mix and divide into twelve powders. Give a powder on damp gain feed, or in cupful of molasses and water, morning and night. These powders will give good results when the skin is in an unhealthy condition, or with little " boils " upon it, in horses. lchthyol Ointment. (50) Ichthyol I dr. Lard I oz. Mix well; and use on small patches of eczema. Or in long haired dogs a lotion may be of easier application. Substitute one ounce of raw linseed oil for the lard; or one ounce of water may be used instead of the oil. Antidotes for Poison& First. Send for a veterinary surgeon. Second. Induce vomiting in dogs by the use of mustard. To the other animals give raw linseed oil, whites of egg, and milk. These last may also be given to dogs. Special Poisons. Acids of any kind. Give soap suds, magnesia, lime water. Prussic Acid. Ammonia in water. Dash cold water onto the head Carbolic Acid. Whites of egg, flour and water. Potash, Lye, Ammonia. Vinegar and water. Arsenic, Paris Green. Whites of eggs, oil, lime water, flour and water. Iodine. Starch and water, strong tea. Opium. Strong coffee, and keep animal moving. INSERT IMAGE The points of the horse will well repay the effort of committing to memory by any one who wishes to be a good judge of a horse. For through a knowledge of their values it is possible to say b)r simply looking over an animal, while he is standing, for what kind of work he is best adapted and, to some extent, how good he may be in his class. PLATE, 1. 1. Poll. 2. Forelock. 3. Ear. 4. Forehead. 5. Face. 6. Nostril 7. Upper lip. 8. Under lip. These two together form the muzzle. 9. Under jaw. 10. Jowl. 11. Throttle. 12. The windpipe. 13. The crest. 14. The withers. 15. The back. 16. The coupling or loins. 17. Summit of the croup. 18 19. The girth. 20. The croup. 21. The dock or root of the tail. 22. The whirl bone, or hip joint. 23. The quarters. 24. The flank. 25. The sheath. 26. The barrel. This is composed of the chest in front and lying under the ribs, and the belly or abdomen lying behind the ribs and extending to the flank. 27. The shoulder. 28. The point of the shoulder. 29. The counter or breast. This extends from side to side across the front of the animal. 30. The elbow. The parts I in between numbers 28 and 30 constitute the arm. 31. The forearm. 32. The knee. 33. The cannon 34. The back tendons or cords. 35. The fetlock or large pastern joint. 36. The pastern. 37. The heel. 38. The coronet. 39. The hoof. 40. The stifle joint. 41. The gaskin or thigh. 42. The hock. 43. Chestnut. The further names and locations of the points below the hocks are the as those given for the front legs

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