This is characterized by moroseness, fear, and prolonged sadness. The melancholic person is lean and slender, with black hair, and a pale and sallow countenance. His skin is brown or blackish, and dry and scaly. His physiognomy has a fixed appearance, the muscles of the face are drawn tight, the eyes are motionless, and directed to one point, the look is askance and suspicious, and the general expression is one of sadness, fear, and terror. He desires to pass his days in solitude and idleness. He walks as if aiming to shun some danger. His eye and ear are on the watch for evil.
These persons do not sleep much. They are kept awake by fear, jealousy, and hallucinations. If their eyes close, they see phantoms which terrify them.
Their secretions are disordered. The urine is either abundant and clear, or scanty and muddy. They sometimes retain their urine for days. One patient did not dare to make water lest be should drown the world, but was finally persuaded to it by the assurance that he would extinguish a fire which was devouring a city.
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