DISEASES OF THE NOSE AND THROAT.
(Also see Anatomy of Throat and Anatomy of Vocal Organs.)
I TAKE these diseases in the order of their location. Nasal Catarrh consists in inflammation, which begins behind and a little above the veil of the palate, and extends upward from thence into the nose. It is an exceedingly troublesome complaint, and afflicts great numbers.
When the inflammation has existed a long time, and ulceration has taken place, puriform matter is secreted, and drops down into the throat, much to the discomfort of the patient. Indeed, this is one of the most distressing features of the complaint, as this matter often descends into the stomach in large quantities, causing frequent vomiting, and a general derangement of the health. Many times the sufferer ,'can only breathe with the mouth open. Upon rising in the morning a great effort is required to clear the head and the extreme upper part of the throat. There is occasionally a feeling of pressure and tightness across the upper part of the nose; and the base of the brain sometimes suffers in such a way as to induce headache, vertigo, and confusion. The smell is frequently destroyed, and sometimes the taste. The inflammation sometimes gets into the Eustachian tubes, the mouths of which are behind and a little above the veil of the palate, and extends up the lining membrane to the drum of the ear, causing pain or deafness, and occasionally both. In addition to this catalogue of evils, there is often added inflammation and elongation of the uvula or soft palate.
As the windpipe descends into the chest, it divides below the top of the breast bone into two branches, one going into the right, the other into the left lung. These branches divide and subdivide very minutely, and send their ramifications into every part of the pulmonary tissue. Thus situated, Meckel has compared the windpipe to a hollow tree with the top turned downward, the larynx and trachea representing the trunk, and the bronchial tubes, with their innumerable subdivisions, the branches and twigs. (Fig. 86.)
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