DISEASES OF THE ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
UNDER the above head I shall consider most of the diseases which occur in the great cavity below the diaphragm, called the abdomen or belly. These affections are quite important, and make up a considerable part of the ills we suffer from disease.
Before speaking of these diseases, however, I will call the reader's attention to a Profile view of the relative position of the several organs lodged in this cavity.
In Fig. 96, L is the liver, S the stomach, C the colon, R the rectum B the bladder, P D the pancreas, and I the intestines. The double lines, folded back upon each other, And surrounding most of the organs, represent the peritoneum, a membrane which lines the great cavity of which I am speaking.
It will be well, too, before proceeding further, to make the reader acquainted with the names of certain regions of the abdomen which he will find constantly spoken of in medical books. I have not used these, terms much in my book; but it will be convenient to be acquainted with them. Physicians who are careless in their readings are not always familiar with their exact locality.
In Fig. 97, the abdomen is divided into nine different regions by the drawing of two parallel lines up and two lines across, 4, 4, and 1, 1. This three in the middle, and three below. In the upper row, 6 is the epigastrium or epigastric region in which are the left lobe of the liver, and a portion of the stomach5, on the right side, is the right hypochondrium, in which is the right lobe of the liver; and 5, on the left side, is the left 7typochondrium, which contains the spleen, and a portion of the stomach and liver. In the middle row, 7 is the umbilical region, which contains the small intestines. On the right side, 8 is the right lumbar region, which holds the right kidney and the ascending colon; and 8, on the left, is the left lumbar region, which contains the left kidney and the descending colon. In the lower row, 9 is the hypogastrium or hypogastric region, which contains a portion of the small intestines and bladder. On the right, 10 is the right iliac fossa, containing the coecum or caput coli; and 10, on the left, is the left iliac fossa, containing the sigmoid flexure.
And now 1 may as well present, in Fig. 98, a front view of many of the organs, both in the chest and abdomen: 1, 1, 1, 1, are the muscles of the chest; 2, 2, 2, 2, the ribs; 3, 3, 3, the upper, middle, and lower lobes of the right lung; 4, 4 the lobes of the left lung 5, the right ventricle o the heart; 6, the left ventricle.
7, the right auricle of the heart ; 8, the left auricle; 9, the pulmonary artery; 10, the aorta; 11, the vena cava desendens 1 12, the windpipe; 13, esophagus; 14, 14, 14, 14, the pleura; 15, 15, 15, the diaphragm; 16,16, the right and left lobes of the liver; 11', the gallbladder; 18, stomach; 26, the spleen; 19, 19, the duodenum; 20, the ascending colon; 24, the transverse colon; 25, the descending colon; 22, 22, 22, 22, the small intestines; 23, 23, the walls of the belly turned down; 24, the thoracic duct, opening into the left subclavian vein (27).
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