Chapter 9 - Diseases of the Abdominal Cavity
Introduction to Diseases of the Abdominal Cavity
Acute Inflammation of the Liver
Chronic Inflammation of the Liver
Congestion of the Liver
Passive Congestion of the Liver
Cirrhosis of the Liver
Acute Inflammation of the Spleen
Chronic Inflammation of the Spleen
Jaundice
Gall Stones
Acute Inflammation of the Stomach
Chronic Inflammation of the Stomach
Indigestion/Dyspepsia
Heart Burn
Cramps in the stomach
Water Brash
Vomiting
Seasickness
Milk Sickness
Acute Inflammation of the Peritoneum
Chronic Inflammation of the Peritoneum
Acute Inflammation of the Bowels
Chronic Inflammation of the Bowels
Appendicitis
Cancer of the Intestine
Intestinal Obstruction
Colic
Air Swellings
Bilious Colic
Painters' Colic
Constistipation
Piles/Hemorrhoids
Diarrhea
Chronic Diarrhea
Cholera Morbus
Asiatic Cholera
Dysentery
Chronic Dysentery
Worms
Acute Inflamation of the Kidneys
Chronic Inflamation of the Kidneys
Acute Inflammation of the Bladder
Chronic Inflammation of the Bladder
Disease of the Supra Renal Capsules
Bright's Disease
Simple Home Tests for Urine - Diagram
Diabetes
Bleeding from the Kidneys
Suppresion of Urine
Retention of Urine
Inability to Hold Urine
Gravel
Uric Acid Gravel
Phosphatic Deposits
Oxalic Deposits
Urate of Ammonia Deposits
Hippuric Acid Deposits
Cystine Deposits
Bladder Stones
Dropsy of the Belly
General Dropsy
Uremia

9.47 Diabetes

Diabetes.

A CHRONIC disease of mild beginning which is associated with the presence of a large amount of sugar together with a great increase of the amount of urine passed. The usual amount that a healthy adult passes during the day is three pints and this disease may cause an increase in severe cases to several quarts; three to four quarts is not unusual and it can be noticed that this great waste of the tissues must naturally be associated with considerable loss of flesh and strength. It is a disease most often found in middle life and more common among men than women and is quite frequently passed down through generations.

Nature of the Urine. Not only is there too much urine discharged, but, instead of being lighter than healthy urine, as in Bright's disease, it is heavier, and instead of holding albumen in solution, it contains grape sugar.

To Detect Sugar. Put a little of the suspected urine in a test tube; add to it a drop or two of solution of soleplate of copper, which will give the fluid a pale blue tint. Now add liquor potassa in excess: if sugar be present, this will throw down a pale blue precipitate (hydrated oxide of copper), which will immediately redissolve, forming a purplish blue liquid. Boil this over a lamp; if there be sugar, a reddish or yellowish brown precipitate (suboxide of copper) will be thrown down; if no sugar, a black precipitate (common oxide of copper) will fall to the bottom.

Another Test. Place a little urine in a test tube; add to it half its volume of liquid potassa, and boil five minutes. If there be sugar present, the liquid will take a brownish or bistre tint.

Growth of Torula as a Test. Place a portion of saccharine urine in a warm place, and a scum will soon rise, as if a little flour had been dusted on it. This, when examined under the microscope, proves to be minute oval bodies. These expand and dilate the vesicle containing them into the form of a tube. They still continue to enlarge, and project from the parent bladder, like buds. The whole then resembles a jointed fungoid growth (Fig. 113), which finally breaks up, and falls to the bottom, as a copious deposit of oval vesicles or spores.

Other Symptoms. Great thirst, craving appetite, dry skin, a sense of weight and uneasiness in the stomach after eating, dry and parched mouth, white and foul or clean and red tongue, wasting of flesh, languor and aversion to exercise, debility, pain and weakness in the loins, costiveness, loss of the sexual feeling, and cold feet. As the disease draws towards a fatal end, the gums become spongy, the breath fetid, sometimes smelling like urine.

Treatment. The skin should have about the same treatment as that recommended in Bright's disease. Also, the same counter irritation over the kidneys. The bowels must be kept open by some gentle physic (13), (12), (15).

Tonics. These will be required to restore the tone of the system, particularly iron, same preparations as recommended in Bright's disease.
Astringents to check the flow of urine will be needed. Alum, in three grain doses, three times a day, or sugar of lead, or white vitriol, or clear opium, will be serviceable. Creosote, in one or two drop doses, and tincture of cantharides, have each cured cases.
One scruple of Peruvian bark, one scruple of wild cranberry leaves, powdered, and half a grain of opium, mixed and taken three times a day, is a good remedy.
AU articles which contain sugar and starch must be forbidden in the diet. Bread and potatoes contain a large amount of starch; and beets, parsnips, and some other vegetables, have sugar. It is best to confine the patient almost entirely to tender, fresh meats; and the drink, notwithstanding the great thirst, must be restricted to a very mall quantity. Saccharin should be. used to sweeten drinks instead of sugar.

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